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Ernest Berkman graduated from the Colorado School of Mines, Geophysical Engineer, 1958. He worked for Mobil Oil for 20 years and then started EMEX. At EMEX, his experience includes prospect analysis and regional geological/geophysical studies including reflection seismic, gravity, magnetics, magneto-tellurucs, refraction analysis, in North America and worldwide; plus a lot of shallow seismic for coal mine development and site characterization. Interpretation background includes site characterization, and technical writing, modeling, quality control, project and team management, industrial teaching, and mentoring. He has been a member of the SEG since 1955. His 30 plus geological and geophysical papers are available
The purpose of this presentation is to discuss the public domain data in Mongolia and adjacent countries. This presentation includes discussions of the geologic setting, plate tectonics, the geothermal regime, satellite imagery, seismic, gravity and magnetic data, and ancillary data; and concludes with a discussion of several productive basins in northern China. Our analysis clearly confirms that regional scale geological mapping and gravity and magnetic surveys along with plate tectonic implications, satellite imagery analysis, and ancillary data give good indications of the presence of basin areas, which appear to contain sedimentary rocks of Cretaceous, Jurassic and Paleozoic age, which are considered to be prospective for commercial hydrocarbon accumulation. Continued exploration with higher quality potential field data and seismic data, leading to drilling is recommended.
The discussion on geologic setting includes a simplified surface geology map, coal and oil resource maps, stratigraphic columns, and example seismic sections. The discussion on plate tectonics presents hypotheses for the origin of this complex area. The discussion on geothermal regime utilizes both the limited data available in Mongolia and the newly available data in Northern China to strengthen the argument that Mongolia is a valid exploration target. Satellite images confirm geologic structures noted in the literature and observed in the gravity and magnetic data. The regional gravity data has been used to characterize the basin shape and major structural elements involving the older denser strata. This is a clearly valid use of the technique as shown by seismic data in China over numerous oil fields.
Title: Applications and comparison of landslide susceptibility models along KKH and CPEC in North-Pakistan
JAVED IQBAL has completed his PhD at the age of 30 years from Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China in 2014. He worked as Assistant Professor and Head of Department of Earth Sciences in the Abbottabad University of Science and Technology, Pakistan during 2018-2018, and later jointed Department of Geology, the University of Haripur, Pakistan. Currently he is a Post-doctoral fellow under Chinese Prestigious fellowship program (PIFI) in the Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu, China, since April 2018. He has published more than 30 papers in reputed journals and worked in several national and international projects.
Karakorum highway (KKH) in Pakistan which was opened for public in 1979 has been facing serious instability issues since its inauguration. Many segments of the KKH in north-Pakistan which runs parallel to sub-parallel to CPEC remains blocked every year due to landsliding and the KKH segment which passes through upper and lower Kohistan districts (about 150 kms) are the most unstable section. A comprehensive landslide inventory of this segment within a buffer zone of 8 kilometers along both sides of the highway was prepared using GAOFEN-I satellite images followed by selective field check. A total of 1340 landslides were identified including debris flows, rock falls, rock slides, debris slide. Next, thirteen thematic layers were prepared including slope, aspect, plan-curvature, prof-curvature, NDVI, relative relief from DEM; rainfall and PGA based on data from Pakistan Meteorological Department (PMD); lithology, distance to faults based; distance to streams; distance to roads on maps taken from Geological Survey of Pakistan (GSP) as well as from personal observations. All these thematic layers were used to generate landslide susceptibility maps using different models including Frequency Ratio (FR), Logistic Regression (LR), Information Vale (InV) and Weights-of-Evidence (WoE) models. Results of all these models were compared and it was found that the Weight-of-Evidence (WoE) model is most suitable model in the study area have success rate of 86.5 % and the prediction rate of 82.5 %. This study would be very helpful to engineers and policy makers of the KKH and CPEC as well as for researcher having the similar interest along these highways in particular and in other mountainous areas in general. In addition to this, findings of this study would be beneficial for construction of two mega hydropower dams which lie within the study area.
Title: Deformation styles and sedimentology criteria to distinguish between subglacial, glaciotectonic and glaciomarine sedimentation of glacial Lake Agassiz
Afsoon Kazerouni is affiliated to Geology Department at the Center for Sustainability Studies. She received her PhD in Geology from Aarhus University in Denmark (Research title: Petrography and diagenesis of Palaeocene-Eocene sandstones in the Siri Canyon, Danish North Sea). She has carried out post-doctorate fellowships at Texas Tech University (USA), Palacký University (Czech Republic), and Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS). She worked as a faculty member, Instructor and supervisor at Rhodes university (South Africa).
Glaciolacustrine sediments accumulated in vast lake systems of central and eastern North America. The central region included glacial Lake Agassiz, one of the largest fresh-water lakes that every existed. Lake Agassiz covered during different phases most of Manitoba, and parts of Saskatchewan, Ontario, North and South Dakota, and Minnesota.
Overflow from Lake Agassiz and other large proglacial lakes cut spectacular spillway channels across the northern Great Plains. The southern part of the Lake Agassiz basin contains a complex of sediments that reflects the first 2000yr of the lake's history.
This research compares and contrasts the sedimentology and structural geology of a Glaciolacustrine sediments site (glacial Lake Agassiz). Primary studies suggest that the glaciomarine environment is dominated by sedimentary processes, related to sediment supply, water content and distance from the glacier margin. Glaciotectonic deformation, however, is dominated by deformational processes, related to effective pressure, shear strain, nature of the subglacial material and distance from the glacier margin. From this study a series of criteria will be suggested to distinguish both Quaternary and contemporary glaciotectonic and glaciomarine environments. In addition, the investigation also discusses the subsequent effects of glaciotectonic deformation on a primary glaciomarine site due to a glacial readvance.
Oral Session 1:
- Planetology | Cosmo-chemistry | Atmospheric science | Glaciology and Hydrology | SpacePhysics and Astrobiology | Environmental ScienceNatural Hazards | Geosciences and Geology |
Title: Measurement and analyses of concentrations of methane (CH4) and nitrogen-dioxide (NO2) gases at a quarry site.
Orji Prince Orji has a Masters Degree in Atmospheric Physics from Abia State University, Uturu, Nigeria. He is currently undergoing a PhD programme (with a research interest in “dampening of signal strength for propagation due to atmospheric constituents) in same institution. Orji is currently an academic staff of the University of Nigeria. He has published five (5) journal papers with reputable journals
Measurement and analyses of the concentrations of NO2 and CH4 gases in ambient air at Setraco quarry site, Abia State, Nigeria (latitude 05â°33N and 06â°03N, and longitude 10â°E and 07â°29E) were carried out in this study. The gases were measured using two automatic air samplers namely EM-4 Type Multi-P detector and AIKE EM-201 Gas meter. The measurements were made at three sampling points; the engine house, petrol station and crushing site for 12 weeks (7th August – 6th November, 2017) at one (1) hour interval per session for three sessions (morning, afternoon and evening) in a day. It was observed that at petrol station, the mean concentration of methane was highest with a value of 3.14±0.8% which is much higher than World Health Organization (WHO) recommendation of 0.1% exposure limit for 8hours working time. The lowest mean concentration at the petrol station was 0.39±0.08% which is still quite high and above deleterious level or the WHO acceptable limit. At the Engine House, the highest mean concentration of NO2 measured was 375±4.0ppm, which is higher than World Health Organization (WHO) and Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) acceptable limit of 4.89ppm for weekly mean concentration. The Air quality index (AQI) calculation for the NO2 concentration of 375±4.0ppm yielded a health-threatening value of 153 especially for people with heart and breathing problem. These results imply that NO2 is emitted more at the Engine house, less at the Petrol station and much less at the Crushing site while CH4 is emitted more at the Petrol station than Engine house and Crushing site.
Title: Mechanism of formation, mineralogy and geochemistry of the oolitic iron ore deposit of Djebel Had, northeast Algeria
Diab Hamida is an Engineer geologist in the National office of Geological and Mining Research (ORGM) Tébessa-Algeria. She got her diploma engineer in Sedimentary Geology from University of Tebessa. Her extensive and diverse training in sedimentology, geotechnical and mining geology allowed her to enrich and deepen her knowledge in the field of exploration and exploitation of natural resources
The Djebel Had Iron Formation (DHIF) is an eight meter thick stratiform sedimentary iron deposit, a part of the mining district of south Tebessa, in northeastern Algeria. Stratigraphic, lithological, structural and metallogenic similarities, suggest the DHIF formation may extend further into southwestern Tunisia. We show that mineralization occurs as layers of oolitic iron ore and inter-laminated iron marl within mid-Eocene gypsiferous marls. The more or less rounded, brownish-blackish oolites, of 2.0-100s of mm in dimension, are predominated by goethite, limonite, hematite, with traces of magnetite and piemontite. The grains display a smooth outer surface bound by an argilo-ferruginous layer embedded in siliceous-calcite cement. They are unusually friable, crumbling at the slightest shock. A high total iron (FeT) content of 50.12%, is dominated by up to 71.06% iron hydroxide (FeO(OH). Much of the iron is present as goethite, a common feature of iron-rich ooliths of North African origin. However, the lack of prominent chlorite minerals suggest the DHIF is not of a detrital origin. Instead, a negligible Ti and Al oxide concentration suggest a chemical provenance for the DHIF. The data suggest that ferruginous conditions developed in a potentially restricted/semi-restricted continental shelf margin where seafloor redox was sensitive to the alternating cycles of sea level change. We propose a new mechanism for the formation of oolitic iron ores, associated with shelf surface water eutrophication, bottom water anoxia promoted by sea level rise and the weathering of iron phosphate-rich rocks. Phosphorus and cerium enrichment, coupled to reconstructed redox depositional conditions and sediment mineralogy, suggest that intense biomass production stimulated the deoxygenation of shelf bottom waters and the deposition of the DHIF beneath a ferruginous water column.
Title: Assessment and mitigation of slope stability hazards along Kombolcha- desse road, northern ethiopia
Buruk Wolde-Michael currently works at the Department of History and Heritage Management, Jimma University. Buruk does research in History of Religion, History of Art and Cultural History. His current project is 'Heritages and Heritage Sites of Ethiopia.'
The Kombolcha to Desse road, linking Addis Ababa with Northern Ethiopia towns traverses through one of the most difficult mountainous ranges in Ethiopia. The presence of loose unconsolidated materials (colluvium materials), highly weathered and fractured basalt rocks, high relief, steep natural slopes, nature of geologic formations exposed along the road section, poor drainage conditions, occurrence of high seasonal rains and seismically active nature of the region created favorable condition for slope instability in the area. Thus, keeping in mind all above points, the present study was conceived to study in detail the slope stability condition of the area. It was realized that detailed slope stability studies along this road section are very necessary to identify critical slopes and to provide the best remedial measures to minimize the slope instability problems which frequently disrupt and endanger the traffic movement on this important road. For the present study based on the field manifestation of instability, two most critical slope sections were identified for detailed slope stability analysis. The deterministic slope stability analysis approach was followed to perform the detailed slope stability analysis of the selected slope sections. Factor of safety for the selected slope sections was determined for the different anticipated conditions (i.e., static and dynamic with varied water saturations) using Slope/W and Slide software. Both static and seismic slope stability analysis was carried out and factor of safety was deduced for each anticipated conditions. In general, detailed slope stability analysis of the two critical slope sections reveals that for only static dry condition both the slopes sections would be stable. However, for the rest anticipated conditions defined by static and dynamic situations with varied water saturations both critical slope sections would be unstable. Moreover, the causes of slope instability in the study area are governed by different factors; therefore integrated approaches of remedial measures are more appropriate to mitigate the possible slope instability in the study area. Depending on site condition and slope stability analysis result 4 types of suitable preventive and remedial measures are recommended namely; proper managements of drainages, retaining structures, gabions and managing steeply cut slopes.