The Global Trends in Renewable Energy Investment 2018 report, published by UN Environment. Last year was the eighth in a row in which global investment in renewables exceeded $200 billion – and since 2004, the world has invested $2.9 trillion in these green energy sources. Overall, China was by far the world’s largest investing country in renewables, at a record $126.6 billion, up 31 per cent on 2016. Solar energy dominated global investment in new power generation like never before in 2017. The world installed a record 98 giga watts of new solar capacity, far more than the net additions of any other technology – renewable, fossil fuel or nuclear and solar power attracted far more investment, at $160.8 billion, up 18 per cent, than any other technology.
Non-renewable energies are those that do not self-sustain naturally. Examples of non-renewable energies are coal, oil and natural gas. Unlike renewable energy sources like wind, water and sun--most of which are converted to power cleanly--the conversion of fossil fuels to usable energy can result in harmful emissions and its collection can disrupt local wildlife. A 2004 study concluded that pollution from coal-powered plants shortened nearly 24,000 lives a year in the U.S.
A smart grid technology is an essential to provide easy integration and reliable service to the consumers. A smart grid system is a self-sufficient electricity network system based on digital automation technology for monitoring, control, and analysis within the supply chain. Currently, the world generates 1.3 billion tonnes of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) annually. By 2025 the world could generate 2.2 billion tonnes of MSW per year. Such a prediction forces us to consider and develop alternatives for addressing our future waste management (WM) challenges.
Biomass can be used to produce renewable electricity, thermal energy, or transportation fuels. Bioenergy is often considered to be environmentally friendly because, in theory, the CO2 released when plants and trees are burned is balanced out by the CO2 absorbed by the new ones planted to replace those harvested. There are two main criticisms of biofuels. The first is that growing plants for energy puts pressure on land use, boosting deforestation and driving up food prices. The second is that the production of some biofuels has been linked to high levels of carbon emissions.
Hybrid energy systems (HESs) are expanding due to environmental concerns of climate change, air pollution, and depleting fossil fuels. Moreover, HESs can be cost effective in comparison with conventional power plants. The current trend of research and development are focused in hybrid renewable energy systems (HRES) that allowing hybridization and optimization of the electrical generation.
The earth intercepts lots of solar power, 173 trillion terawatts to be specific. That’s literally ten thousand more power than the entire world population utilizes. This validates the fact that the sun is the most plentiful source of energy on the entire globe and that it could one day be the most reliant source of energy. Combination solar wind power is an alternative approach to producing clean, non-polluting energy from two of the most abundant renewable energy sources. This system uses a hybrid solar panel and wind turbine generator to create electricity which is then stored in batteries.
Fossil fuels dominate the power sector and will continue to do so in the foreseeable future. Strong growth in non-OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development) countries exceeds the reductions in OECD countries, thereby extending a lifeline of fossil fuels. However, their share of the energy generation market is expected to decline from 68 per cent in 2011 to 57 per cent in 2035.
Petroleum engineering is a field of engineering concerned with the activities related to the production of hydrocarbons, which can be either crude oil or natural gas. Exploration and production are deemed to fall within the upstream sector of the oil and gas industry.
The increased deployment of renewable generation of energy, coupled with the high cost of managing peak grid demand, is driving interest in stationary energy storage technologies within the utilities industries. Grid reliability and the large capital costs of upgrading the nation's electrical transmission systems are sparking interest in distributed energy generation and storage. And in the transportation sector, the volatility of fuel prices and the desire to create a competitive domestic battery manufacturing industry have all led to rapid growth in research in advanced energy storage technologies.
Hydro-electric power, using the potential energy of rivers, now supplies 17.5% of the world's electricity (99% in Norway, 57% in Canada, 55% in Switzerland, 40% in Sweden, 7% in USA). Hydropower is one of the biggest renewable sources of energy. Geothermal energy is the heat from the Earth. Geothermal fields produce only about one-sixth of the carbon dioxide that a relatively clean natural-gas-fueled power plant produces. Binary plants release essentially no emissions. Unlike solar and wind energy, geothermal energy is always available, 365 days a year.