Infectious diseases kill more people worldwide than any other single cause. The diseases caused by germs and which may infect any part of the body are called infectious diseases. They can be spread by any means where there is a germ. They are caused by pathogenic microorganisms such as bacteria, virus, parasites and fungi. Germs can be spread by direct or indirect contact. Vaccination and maintenance of proper hygiene and medicines help in the prevention of infection. Infectious diseases can be caused by bacteria, virus, fungi and parasites through direct contact, indirect contact, insect bites and food contamination. Each infectious disease has its own specific signs and symptoms include fever, fatigue and muscle aches.
The infections experience in health care settings has become more challenging. Most of the duty workers get exposed commonly to a variety of infectious diseases during the performance of their duties. The primary route of infections transmission is airborne, contact (direct and indirect) which involves the entry of infectious agents from infected individual to a susceptible individual through physical contact and Indirect contact transmission occurs by susceptible individual physical contact with contaminated items. Infectious Diseases conference 2023 is going to be a platform to discuss microbes that cause illness and its awareness of exposure in the health care settings.
Bacteria are microscopic single-celled organisms that live almost everywhere. Bacteria live in every climate and location on earth. Some are airborne while others live in water or soil. Bacteria live on and inside plants, animals, and people. The word "bacteria" has a negative connotation, but bacteria perform many vital functions for organisms and in the environment. Fungal Infectious Diseases are often caused by fungi that are common in the environment. Most fungi are not dangerous, but some types can be harmful to health. Mild fungal skin diseases can look like a rash and are very common. Fungal diseases in the lungs are often similar to other illnesses such as the flu or tuberculosis. Some fungal infections like fungal meningitis and bloodstream infections are less common than skin and lung infections but can be deadly.
Antibiotics are the most commonly prescribed medications in modern medicine. Antibiotics cure disease by killing or injuring bacteria. The first antibiotic was penicillin, discovered accidentally from a mold culture. Today, over 100 different antibiotics are available to cure minor and life-threatening infections. Vaccination against bacterial and viral diseases is an integral part of communicable disease control worldwide. Vaccination against a specific disease not only reduces the incidence of that disease, it reduces the social and economic burden of the disease on communities. High immunization can lead to the complete blocking of transmission for many vaccine-preventable diseases (VPD).
Sexually transmitted infections are also referred to as sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) that are commonly spread by sexual activity, especially vaginal intercourse, oral sex, and anal sex. STIs seldom cause symptoms initially, which results in a greater risk of passing the disease on to others. Symptoms and signs of STIs may include vaginal discharge, pelvic pain, ulcers on or around the genitals, and penile discharge. Transmission of STIs can be witnessed to an infant before or during childbirth, which may result in poor outcomes for the infant. Some STIs can cause infertility. Safe sex practices, such as the use of condoms, having a fewer number of sexual partners and being in a relationship in which each person only has sex with each other also decrease the risk of STIs. Circumcision in adult males may be effective to prevent some infections.
A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides required immunity to a particular infectious disease. The vaccine contains a biological preparation from a disease-causing microorganism. This preparation is rarely made from a weakened or killed form of the microbe, one of its surface proteins, and its toxins. Vaccines can be therapeutic (to fight a disease that has already occurred, such as cancer), or prophylactic (to prevent or ameliorate the effects of a future infection by a natural or wild pathogen).
Vaccination: Vaccination is the administration of a vaccine to help the immune system develop protection from certain diseases. Vaccines contain microorganisms or viruses in the form of damaged, dead or living states, or either proteins or toxins from the organism. They help in the prevention of illness from an infectious disease. There has been a lot of studies and verifications conducted regarding the effectiveness of vaccination, which tells vaccination is the most effective method of preventing infectious diseases widespread, immunity due to vaccination is largely responsible for the worldwide eradication of smallpox and the elimination of diseases such as polio and tetanus from most parts of the world. However, some diseases like Measles outbreak in America have seen rising cases due to a relatively low vaccination rate that leads to vaccine hesitancy
Emerging Infectious Diseases (EID) are the diseases whose incidence has increased in the past 20 years and could increase in the near future. Emerging infections account for at least 12% of all human pathogens. These are caused by newly identified species or strains e.g. Severe acute respiratory syndrome, HIV/AIDS that may have evolved from a known infection like influenza or spread to a new population like West Nile fever or to an area undergoing ecologic transformation of Lyme disease or be re-emerging infections, like drug resistant tuberculosis. Nosocomial is a hospital-acquired infection, such as Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus are emerging in hospitals and extremely problematic in that they are resistant to many antibiotics.
Medical diagnosis is the process of treatment that is helpful in determining which disease or condition explains a person's symptoms and signs. Laboratory tests may identify organisms directly or indirectly. General types of tests include culture, microscopy, and immunologic tests (agglutination tests such as latex agglutination, enzyme immunoassays, western blot, precipitation tests, and complement fixation tests) and nucleic acid/non-nucleic acid-based identification techniques. Subtypes of diagnoses include clinical, laboratory, radiology, principal, and admitting diagnosis. Advanced methods have been approached to diagnose the infection in any part of the body