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Pediatric cardiology is responsible for the diagnosis of congenital heart defects, performing diagnostic procedures such as echocardiograms, cardiac catheterization and electrophysiological studies. The increasing number of neonates with congenital heart defects referred to the neonatal intensive care unit reflects the increasing awareness that the defects may be present. Chest radiography and ECG rarely assist in the neonatal diagnosis. Congestive heart failure in the fetus, or hydrops, can be detected by performing fetal echocardiography. Many of the pediatric heart defects such as patent ductus arteriosus interruption, vascular ring division, pericardial window, diaphragm placation, thoracic duct ligation, ligation of collateral vessels have been repaired using pediatric interventional cardiology. Apart from these techniques nursing and care for pediatric cardiac patients also plays an important role for the cure of pediatric cardiac patients.

Cardiovascular pharmacology deals with the medication of cardiac diseases. The Cardiac Drugs are used to treat conditions of the related to heart or the circulatory or vascular system. Many categories of cardiovascular agents are available to treat the various cardiovascular conditions. The most commonly used sub-category drugs include Sodium, potassium, calcium channel blockers, ACE-inhibitors and Cardiac biomarkers. There are mainly 6 associations and societies and the main association for Cardiac Therapeutic Agents in USA. 50 universities are working on Cardiac Therapeutic Agents. Recently three new drugs were introduced in 2015. There are many types of cardiovascular drugs in the market that include Cardiac glycosides, anti-coagulants, anti-arrhythmic agents, anti-anginal agents and anti-hypertensive agents.

Cardiac nursing is a special nursing field which works with patients who suffer from different conditions of the cardiovascular system. Cardiac nurses help treat and care conditions such as unstable angina, cardiomyopathy, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, infarction of myocardium and cardiac arrhythmia under the direction of a cardiologist. The cardiac nurses perform post-operative treatment on a surgical unit, stress test assessments, cardiac monitoring, vascular monitoring and health assessments. Cardiac nurses work in various kinds of environments, involving coronary care units (CCU), catheterization of heart, intensive care units (ICU), operating theatres, cardiac rehabilitation centers, clinical research, wards for cardiac surgery, cardiovascular intensive care units (CVICU), and cardiac medical wards.

Cardiology concerns with diseases and disorders of the heart, such as coronary artery disease and congestive heart failure. The field includes medical diagnosis and treatment of congenital heart defects, coronary artery disease, heart failure, valvular heart disease and electrophysiology. Although the heart and circulatory system make up your cardiovascular system. Heart works as a pump that pushes blood to the organs, tissues, and cells of your body. Blood delivers oxygen and nutrients to every cell and removes the carbon dioxide and waste products made by those cells.

Cardio-oncology is the heart condition in patients who have been treated for cancer. Cardiologists estimate patients for potential risk of developing heart conditions if patients take certain types of cancer drugs or other radiation treatment to the chest conditions. Cardiologists also help oncologists in patients during treatment by closely watching the heart conditions and recognizing heart trouble early in treatment.

The improvement of heart surgery and cardiopulmonary sidestep procedures has lessened the death rates of these surgeries to generally low positions. For example, repairs of inborn heart deformities are at present assessed to have 4–6% death rates. A noteworthy worry with cardiovascular surgery is the frequency of neurological harm. A more inconspicuous complexity of neurocognitive shortages credited to cardiopulmonary sidestep is known as post perfusion disorder, now and then called "pump head". The indications of postperfusion disorder were at first felt to be permanent, but were appeared to be transient with no lasting neurological hindrance.

The regrowth of organs and tissues of the heart that are lost in an injury are called Cardiac Regeneration. This is in disparity to wound healing, which involves closing of the injury site by forming a scar. Few tissues like skin and large organs such as liver regrow quite readily, whilst others have been seen with little or no capacity of regeneration. Nevertheless in the present research, it suggests that particularly in the Lungs and heart, there is hope for a variety of organs and tissues will eventually develop and the capacity to regenerate.

Cardiology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the heart. Heart is an important muscular organ in humans and other animals, pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system. The drugs that are used to treat other disorders in body, show a great impact on heart causing various side effects. Hence case reports on cardiac disorders and diseases have a great value and help in advancing and development of treatment strategies. Cardiology conferences, cardiologist meetings and cardiology events are very important for the common people to be aware of the most important part of human body.

The interventional cardiology is one of the main branches of cardiology. It refers to the specific Cather based techniques to various structural heart diseases, non-surgical procedures for treating cardiovascular disease. The experts in this arena are called Interventional cardiologists. They handle catheters; it is thin, flexible tube to repair damaged vessels or other heart structures, often avoiding the need for surgery. The insertion of a sheath into the femoral artery and cannulating the heart under X-ray visualization is one of the heart catheterization techniques. Cardiac catheterization is a test which used to evaluate the coronary arteries and heart valve function.

Heart disease is the dominant reason of death in the western world. Each year in the U.S.A, above 500,000 men and women die due to coronary artery disease. During the last two decades, major strides have been done in the analysis and treatment of heart disease. Nuclear Cardiology is the main reason for beginning of the diagnosis of heart disease and the assessment of disease extent and the detection of outcomes in the setting of coronary artery disease. Nuclear cardiology studies use non-invasive methods to analyse myocardial blood flow, determine the pumping function of the heart as well as visualize the size and placing of a heart attack. Among the techniques of nuclear cardiology, myocardial perfusion imaging is the most commonly used.

The scientific goal of this track is to understand the underlying causes and pathophysiology of obesity, diabetes, and associated metabolic diseases, as well as pursuing effective and safe interventions and therapeutics. Investigators in this division also have a special emphasis on women's health and on the developmental programming of metabolic diseases.  This includes expertise in the central nervous system that controls appetite and energy expenditure, pancreas function, and adipose tissue function.  Our investigators utilize a broad array of research tools including non-invasive imaging, complex whole animal studies on physiology and behavior, and in vitro and ex vivo techniques.

Vascular heart disease is a disease that involves one or more of the four valves of the heart (left aortic valve and mitral valve and right lung and tricuspid valve). These conditions are largely due to the effects of aging. Most people are diagnosed when they are around 50 years of age and more than 10 of over 75 people have it. In vascular heart disease, the valves become too narrow and hardened (stenoses) to open completely or are unable to close completely (incompetence). These conditions occur largely as a consequence of aging, but may also be the result of congenital (inborn) abnormalities or specific disease or physiologic processes including rheumatic heart disease and pregnancy.

Heart failure (HF), often referred to as chronic heart failure (CHF), occurs when the heart is unable to pump sufficiently to maintain blood flow to meet the body's needs. These cause heart failure by changing either the structure or the functioning of the heart. There are two main types of heart failure: heart failure due to left ventricular dysfunction and heart failure with normal ejection fraction depending on if the ability of the left ventricle to contract is affected, or the heart's ability to relax. Common causes of heart failure include coronary artery disease including a previous myocardial infarction (heart attack), high blood pressure, atrial fibrillation, vascular heart disease, excess alcohol use, infection, and cardiomyopathy of an unknown cause. The severity of disease is usually graded by the degree of problems with exercise.

Normal physiological changes during pregnancy require, on average, a 50% increase in circulating blood volume that is accompanied by an increase in cardiac output that usually peaks between the mid portion of the second and third trimesters. The increased cardiac output is due to an increase in the stroke volume, and a small increase in heart rate, averaging 10 to 20 beats per minute. The evaluation of individuals with heart disease who are or wish to become pregnant is a difficult issue. Issues that have to be addressed include the risks during pregnancy to the mother and the developing fetus by the presence of maternal valvular heart disease as an intercurrent disease in pregnancy.  Additionally uterine circulation and endogenous hormones cause systemic vascular resistance to decrease and a disproportionately lowering of diastolic blood pressure causes a wide pulse pressure.

Diagnostic tests on heart disease are methods of identifying cardiac conditions associated with unhealthy, unhealthy, morbid cardiac function. The common non-invasive cardiac diagnostic testing procedures used to diagnose coronary heart disease are transthoracic echocardiography, stress testing (exercise, pharmacological, and nuclear), multidetector computed tomography, coronary artery calcium scoring (with electron beam computed tomography or computed tomographic angiography), and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. The objective is to describe available methods for non-invasive assessment of coronary artery disease, to identify the most appropriate population for each trial, to review the advantages and limitations of each test method, to patients undergoing various test methods Identification of considerations at nursing care, discovery of various ways.

Radiology department is specialized in medicine, using imaging technology to diagnose illness. In cardiovascular radiology, imaging techniques are used to diagnose cardiac and vascular disease. Cardiovascular surgeon (also called radiologist in vascular internal medicine) uses imaging tools such as X-ray, MRI, CT scan, etc. to diagnose and treat diseases. They also use detailed imaging equipment to guide medical instruments through minute entryways into the body during intricate medical procedures. Interventional radiology is a subspecialty of radiology. Interventional radiology uses imaging to help guide doctors when they are inserting catheters, wires, and other small instruments into your body. Doctors can use this technology to diagnose (a procedure called angiography) or to treat (a procedure called angioplasty) heart and blood vessel blockages, without actually having to perform surgery. Some other examples of interventional radiology procedures include stent placement, needle biopsies, and radiofrequency ablation (a treatment method for arrhythmia).

A stroke occurs when blood does not flow through any part of the brain and damages brain cells. The effect of a stroke depends on the part of the damaged brain and the amount of injury. By knowing the function of the brain, it helps to understand stroke. The arterial thrombus in the brain can block the circulation to the brain. This can cause strokes. The carotid artery carries blood to the brain. Plaque formation on the carotid artery may have the same result. These scenarios cause so-called ischemic stroke. Another major type of stroke is hemorrhagic stroke. This happens when blood vessels in the brain rupture and blood leaks into surrounding tissues. High blood pressure that places a burden on the walls of your arteries can cause hemorrhagic stroke.

An Advanced Nurse Practitioner practises autonomously within his/her expanded scope of clinical practice. The Advanced Nurse Practitioner demonstrates highly developed assessment, diagnostic, analytical and clinical judgement skills and the components of this level of practice. The role of advanced practice is increasingly key to the development and provision of medical services. Advanced nurse practitioner is often a liaison between patient and family while looking after the patient. Their highly sophisticated training is more conspicuous in decision making ability and expertise in areas such as diagnosis and evaluation, planning and implementation, medical and record keeping evaluation, and has advanced knowledge. This Framework provides the foundation on which all future advanced practice roles are to be developed and existing roles are to be reviewed and subsequently managed. The Framework is aimed at employers, service leads, education providers and senior or Advanced Practitioners themselves.