1. Nursing theory and practice
The nursing profession has developed substantially over time, transferring from dependence upon total scientific course providing primary care into an unbiased practice modality with its own nursing theory practice, nursing fashions and wonderful nursing interventions. Nursing theory is defined as ‘’a notion, policy or procedure proposed or followed as the premise of motion’. Nursing theory is ‘’an organized framework of standards and functions designed to guide the practice of nursing.” Nursing theories influence everyday nursing exercise. Most nurses employ many theories in exercise as opposed to the usage of one idea exclusively. Using a variety of nursing theories during a given day, allows the nurse to choose the best theory to fit the situation. In an ideal setting, nursing theories serve to prove underpinnings to nursing care in every patient encounter. They help nurses use critical thinking skills, analytical skills and improve concept comprehension. Nursing theories improve patient care, patient outcomes, and nurse-patient communication. Using nursing theories in practice, new knowledge and data are gleaned that can influence the future of nursing practice.
Nursing theories are a relatively new component of the nursing profession. Despite their recent appearance, nursing theories have a made a strong and lasting impact on the education, training and development of professional nurses. They have also influenced patient care and outcomes in everyday nursing practice. As the nursing profession continues to evolve and define itself, new nursing theories will be needed to guide nurses practicing at the bedside. Future nurse theorists should remain true to their clinical roots, making sure that theories continue to be applicable to nursing practice in the ever-changing healthcare landscape.
2. Nursing care education and Research
The nursing process is a scientific method used to ensure quality patient care that was first described in the 1950s and encompassed three steps. Today there are six steps in the nursing process: Assessment, nursing diagnosis, outcome identification, planning, implementation and evaluation. Each of these steps can be further divided into a number of individual steps, all with the goal of improving patient care. Many nursing theories incorporate the nursing process into their foundations. Other theories expand upon the nursing process and may add additional steps. Nursing theories can be helpful at all stages of the nursing process and may guide a nurse to perform specific actions or make certain decision during patient care.
3. Nursing Law
Legal nursing is a highly specialized field that bridges the gap between medicine and the law. Lawyers, prosecutors and judges may be experts in legal matters but they are not always familiar with the field of medicine. When trying certain cases such as clinical negligence or malpractice, medical fraud or criminal cases, they often need expert help to understand complicated medical terminology or to interpret charts and records. This is where medical experts come into play. Nurses who work in legal nursing are called Legal Nurse Consultants. Legal nurse consultants work in a wide range of settings. Some of the more common settings include large law firms, private lawyers’ offices, hospitals, clinics, insurance and pharmaceutical companies and governmental agencies. While larger law firms, hospitals, insurance companies and governmental agencies may have legal nurse consultants on their permanent payroll, smaller law firms and private clinics tend to hire these specialists on a contract basis.
4. Health care consumerism and E-health
Consumerism s an intriguing trend that bears a close watching in the past decade. Consumerism is a buzzword that means different things to different people with different interests. In its truest sense, consumerism is ‘’a movement seeking to protect the rights of consumers by requiring such practices as honest packaging, labeling and advertising, fair pricing and increased safety standards.’’ In health care, a consumer has come to mean a more informed participant, perhaps one who uses internet to obtain information about health, diseases and quality ratings of providers and hospitals. Defined as such, consumerism is a positive development in healthcare. However, in industry, consumerism also refers to type of health insurance plan caked a consumer directed health plan that gives the consumer more choices about how his or her insurance dollars will be spent. And in practice, this means, plainly stated, that the consumer is paying for more of health care costs. This shift in trend has largely impacted the functioning of health care professionals such as doctors and nurses – in both positive and negative way. This is a highly debatable topic and has both pros and cons to it. Pros being increased pay and better technologies to be put to service, whereas cons being decreasing number of consumers fearing increased charges.
5. Forensic Emergency nursing
Forensic emergency nursing is the application of clinical nursing practice to trauma survivors or to those whose death is pronounced in the clinical environs, involving the identification of unrecognized, unidentified injuries and the proper processing of forensic evidence. Forensic nursing involves providing best clinical care, as well as medical and legal experience, through effectively identifying and preserving evidence that can be handed over to law enforcement, to be used in the investigation and prosecution of the case. Forensic nurses work in a variety of roles, ranging from sexual assault to domestic violence, child abuse and neglect, elder mistreatment, death investigation, corrections and in the aftermath of mass disasters. According to the International Association of Forensic Nurses, most forensic nurses work in hospitals, community anti-violence programs, coroner’s and medical examiner’s offices, corrections institutions and in psychiatric hospitals.
6. Clinical nursing care
Clinical nursing demands a higher level of skill in clinical decision making, especially when it comes to problem identification and solution, and analyzing and interpreting clinical data. As a clinical nurse specialist, one is expected to demonstrate both clinically and professionally to be able to monitor for acute changes and deterioration and know how to manage that and know how to liaise with the doctors and the teams.
It’s a role that also involves leadership skills, with clinical nurse specialists often required to act as a mentor or preceptor to less experienced nurses, such as graduate nurses. Clinical nurse specialists are required to support and contribute to quality improvement and research projects within their area of practice and their ward, unit or department, and are considered a valuable clinical practice resource to other nurses and health professionals. Clinical nurse specialists must also be dedicated to pursuing professional development, whether its holding a membership of a relevant professional body or group, attending conferences and seminars to advance their learning or contributing to the education of others.
7. Cancer Nursing
Oncology nurses work in multi-disciplinary teams, in a variety of settings, from the inpatient ward, to the bone marrow transplant unit, to the community. Oncology nurses often serve as the first line of communication, and help coordinate the many aspects of care throughout cancer treatment. They may perform number of duties. An Oncology Nurse provides care for cancer patients and those at risk for getting the disease. Oncology nurses must manage both the symptoms of a patient’s disease and the side effects of various cancer treatments. They monitor physical conditions, prescribe medication, and administer chemotherapy and other treatments. Oncology nurses witness much suffering but this stress is offset by the long-term relationships they often develop with patients and their families.
8. Community nursing
Working in a variety of environments, from clinics and health centers to residential accommodation and patients' own homes, community nurses help meet the needs of elderly, disabled or vulnerable patients who may not be able to easily visit the hospital. Community nurses are trained to perform a variety of nursing procedures which may include:
9. Women health and midwifery
Midwifery, also known as obstetrics, is the health profession that deals with the specialization in pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period (including care of the new-born), besides reproductive and sexual health of women throughout their lives. Midwives are the community of nurses who take care of the women bearing a child with help of consultants and referrals. The actual duty of the midwife is to look after a pregnant woman and her baby throughout the antenatal period, during labor and child birth.
10. Travel nurse
Travel nursing is a nursing appointment concept that developed in response to the nursing shortage. This management provides nurses who travel to work in pro tempore nursing positions, mostly in hospitals. While travel nursing refers specifically to the nursing profession, it can also be used to refer to a variety of travel healthcare sites, including physical therapy, professional therapy, speech-language pathology, hospitals and even doctors and dentists.
11. Disaster Nursing
Disaster nursing refers to management and response of nurses during disasters. There are manmade disasters like wars, industrial accidents, natural disasters like earthquake, hurricane and the response of the nurses plays a vital role during disasters. The disaster nursing includes prevention, preparedness, and response and recovery phases. It requires coordination of different departments to avoid and manage disasters.
12.Psychiatric nurse practitioner
Psychiatric nursing is the medical specialty that diagnoses and treats mental disorders, usually those requiring medication. Psychiatry is now a highly visible activity, lack of care in the community, compulsion, suicide, drug and alcohol abuse are few motivations. Starting with the identification of the major mental illnesses and how they are considered distinction from normality. Flourishing of psychoanalysis and its later transformation into more accessible psychotherapies give a chance for better understanding. Modern psychiatry too brings with it new controversies such as the medicalization of normal life, the power of the drug companies and the use of psychiatry as an agent of social control.
13.Home health care
With all essential services being delivered at home in today’s world, health care has also advanced to a level such that, there arises no requirement to go to the hospital. Right from physiotherapy to injections, every treatment is nowadays available at door service. Nurses are so highly skilled and equipped that they do not require any doctor’s supervision for such treatments. Home health care hence has been a growing field.
14. Wearable technology and Remote patient monitoring
With the growing advancement in technology, healthcare is also a service that has reaped maximum benefits. Right from analysis of patients’ data to testing, every procedure has become so technologically advanced that it requires only supervision. Nurses now no longer must prepare themselves with the patients’ medical history, thanks to google glass, that displays every detail in just a click.
15. Nursing credentials and certifications
Credentials for practising nursing range from basic fellowships( eg.FAAN) to Doctorate in nursing practice or PhD. (DNP). These credentials are the basic requirements for an induvidual to practice nursing. Apart from these there are various certifications that offer specialization in some particular field eg Gerontological Nursing practice - GNP-BC. These credentials are provided by associations like Americal Nursing Cretialing center, American academy of Nursing, etc.