Biosensor is an analytical device which converts a biological response into an electrical signal. The device is made up of a transducer and a biological element that may be an enzyme, an antibody or a nucleic acid. The characteristic identifying segment can be a substance, a receptor counter pro, or DNA. The transducer, which can be optical, physicochemical, piezoelectric, or electrochemical, produces an electrical standard contrasting with the social event of the substance being evaluated. Bio-sensing technologies are of increasing importance in healthcare, agriculture-food, environmental and security sectors, and this is reflected in the continued growth of global markets for such technologies. Biomechanics is closely related to engineering, because it often uses traditional engineering sciences to analyse biological systems.
Bioelectronics: Biological properties can be measured and altered using electronics, magnetics, photonics, sensors, circuits, and algorithms. Applications range from basic biological science through clinical medicine, and enable new discoveries, diagnoses, and treatments by creating novel devices, systems, and analyses. Bioelectronics, specifically bio-molecular electronics, described as 'the research and development of bio-inspired inorganic and organic materials and of bio-inspired hardware architectures for the implementation of new information processing systems, sensors and actuators, and for molecular manufacturing down to the atomic scale'. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), defined bioelectronics in a report as "the discipline resulting from the convergence of biology and electronics". Bio-analysis is one of the sub categories of Chemistry that helps in measuring Xenobiotics (unnatural concentration or location of drugs, Metabolites and biological molecules) in biological system. Biomedical devices are an amalgamation of science, sensors, interface equipment, microcontrollers, and PC programming, and require the blend of a couple of standard requests including science, optics, mechanics, number juggling, contraptions, science, and programming building. A key aspect is the interface between biological materials and micro- and Nano-electronics.
Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) have played key roles in many important areas, for example transportation, communication, automated manufacturing, environmental monitoring, health care, defence systems, and a wide range of consumer products. MEMS are inherently small, thus offering attractive characteristics such as reduced size, weight, and power dissipation and improved speed and precision compared to their macroscopic counterparts. Integrated Circuit (IC) fabrication technology has been the primary enabling technology for MEMS besides a few special etching, bonding and assembly techniques. Microfabrication provides a powerful tool for batch processing and miniaturizing electromechanical devices and systems to a dimensional scale that is not accessible by conventional machining techniques. As IC fabrication technology continues to scale toward deep submicron and nanometer feature sizes, a variety of Nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) can be envisioned in the foreseeable future. Nanoscale mechanical devices and systems integrated with Nanoelectronics will open a vast number of new exploratory research areas in science and engineering. Bionics is the utilization of natural methods and frameworks found in nature to the examination and layout of framework systems. MEMS has been applied to a wide range of fields. Hundreds of microdevices have been developed for specific applications. Microstructure examples with dimensions on the order of submicron are presented with fabrication technologies for future NEMS applications.
Nanobiosensors are essentially the sensors which are comprised of nanomaterials. They can play a very major role in the detecting system of the biosensor innovation. Incorporated devices of the nanomaterials with electrical systems offer ascent to Nanoelectromechanical Systems (NEMS), which are extremely dynamic in their electrical transduction instruments. The nanotechnology based biosensor or nano biosensor headway is changing the prosperity mind industry, for example, the nanobiosensor advancement is utilized as a piece of the estimation of metabolites, checking of diabetes and so on authentic medicine, country security. The utilization of nanomaterials for the improvement of biosensors has redesigned the affectability and execution of them and has permitted the presentation of different new pennant transduction propels in biosensors. Biosensors frequently comprise a biological recognition molecule immobilized onto the surface of a signal transducer to give a solid state analytical device. The use of nanomaterial’s has acknowledged the establishment of many new signal transduction technologies in biosensors through nanotechnology.
Microfluidics will be one of the key components of the current technological revolution in the biotech sphere, and that it might accelerate some of the research on the aging process.
Lab-on-a-chip technology has started to conquer biological and medical labs. Nanofluidics is drawing researchers attention because it has unique liquid and fluidic properties that are not observed in any other technology. All these fields has advanced rapidly over the past 20 years and developed into cutting-edge technologies that has great application potential ranging from biology to electronics, from tissue engineering to organ-on-a-chip, from fertility enhancement to mutation diagnostics, from DNA sequencing to DNA modification, from continuous to digital microfluidics, from developing to developed world.
Nanomaterials benefit from microfluidics in terms of synthesis and simulation of environments for Nanomotors and Nanorobots. Microfluidics seminars in relational to materials and technology makes easy to understand nanoparticles. In our opinion, the “marriage” of nanomaterial and microfluidics is highly beneficial and is expected to solve vital challenges in related fields.
Nano-electronics alludes to the use of nanotechnology in electronic parts. The term covers various game plan of contraptions and materials with the normal trademark that they are little to the point that between atomic affiliations and quantum mechanical properties ought to be considered generally.
Sub-nuclear devices allude to the subdivision of nanotechnology and nano-electronics that is responsible for equipment improvement and design using nano-building squares. All advanced creation of coordinated circuits and electronic devices is possible in light of degrees of progress in sub-atomic gadgets.
Nano-electronics covers a diverse set of devices and materials, with the common characteristic that they are so small that physical effects alter the materials ‘properties on a nanoscale – inter-atomic interactions and quantum mechanical properties play a significant role in the workings of these devices. At the nanoscale, new phenomena take precedence over those that hold sway in the macro-world. Quantum effects such as tunneling and atomistic disorder dominate the characteristics of these nanoscale devices.
Bioinstrumentation is the development of technologies for the measurement and manipulation of parameters within biological systems, focusing on the application of engineering tools for scientific discovery and for the diagnosis and treatment of disease. Bioinstrumentation is a part of Biomedical engineering application of engineering principles and design concepts to medicine and biology for healthcare purposes (e.g. diagnostic or therapeutic).
Bioinstrumentation refers to high-tech, often costly instrumentation used to conduct cutting edge research in the biological sciences. Biological research has been revolutionized in the last 15-20 years, these advances have provided the capacity to increase the scope and throughout of research activities. This expansion in scope has resulted in the development of new fields of study. Advances in instrumentation for techniques such as DNA sequencing and quantitative PCR, microarray analysis and mass spectrometry now allow scientists to simultaneously study all of the genes and proteins of an organism, and have resulted in the new fields of genomics and proteomics.
Optical biosensors are powerful alternative to conventional analytical techniques, for their particularly high specification, sensitivity, small size, and cost effectiveness. Although promising developments of optical biosensors are being reported, but there are not many reports on applications of optical biosensor in practical field. The research and technological development of optical biosensors have experienced an exponential growth during the last decade because this technology has a great potential for the direct, real-time and label-free detection of many chemical and biological substances. The success of the biosensor technology can be deduced for the increasing number of commercially available instruments. A highly multidisciplinary approach including microelectronics, MEMS, micro/nanotechnologies, molecular biology, nano-biotechnology, and chemistry are needed for the implementation of such new analytical devices. Biosensing devices fabricated with optoelectronics micro/nanotechnologies are powerful devices which can fulfill these requirements. Optical biosensors offer great advantages over conventional analytical techniques. Optical biosensors are highly sensitive, rapid, reproducible, and simple-to-operate analytical tools. The obstacles to exploitation have been fundamentally related to the presence of biomaterial in the biosensor (immobilization of biomolecules on transducers, stability of enzymes, and antibodies), the development of the sensor device (sensitivity and reproducibility issues), and the integration of optical biosensors into complete systems. The integration of fluidics, electronics, separation technology, and biological subsystems is crucial for the development of biosensor systems. The sensor/sampling system biointerface is a key target for the construction of an integrated system. Optical biosensor research and development has been directed mainly towards healthcare, environmental applications, and biotech industry. Other Optical Biosensors:
Biosensors are of great importance because of their several advantages over the conventional techniques in the field of analysis. Biosensors are researched and applied in several diverse areas, such as health, medicine, defense, agriculture and food safety, industry and environmental monitoring, etc.
Biosensors can be classified according to their transduction principle such as optical, electrochemical, piezoelectric based on their recognition element as immunosensors, aptasensors, genosensors, and enzymatic biosensors, when antibodies, aptamers, nucleic acids, and enzymes are, respectively, used.
The research on the construction of biosensors for environmental monitoring of organic pollutants, potentially toxic elements, and pathogens has been contributed to the sustainable development of society due to the problems of environmental pollution for human health.
In this field, the biosensors have been widely employed as cost effective, fast, in situ, and real-time analytical techniques. The need of portable, rapid, and smart biosensing devices explains the recent development of biosensors with new transduction materials, obtained from nanotechnology, and for multiplexed pollutant detection, involving multidisciplinary experts.
Biosensors are, by definition, sensing devices comprising a biological component (enzyme, antibody, animal or plant cell, oligonucleotide, lipid, microorganisms, etc.) intimately connected to a physical transducer (electrode, optical fiber, vibrating quartz, etc.). This dual configuration permits a quantitative study of the interaction between a drug compound and an immobilized biocomponent. Enzyme based biosensors can be applied in the pharmaceutical industry for monitoring chemical parameters in the production process (in bioreactors). Affinity biosensors are suitable for high-throughout screening of bioprocess-produced antibodies and for candidate drug screening. They are suitable for selective and sensitive immunoassays in clinical laboratories and for decentralized detection of drug residues. Enzyme-based biosensors may be used in hospitals for bedside drug testing, emergency control, in patient treatment control (anticancer therapy) etc. Current research efforts are focused on proteins, tissues, or living cells immobilized in microfabricated configurations for high-throughout drug screening and discovery. These sensors allow the determination of the affinity and kinetics of a wide variety of molecular interactions in real time, without the need for a molecular tag or label. Advances in instrumentation and experimental design have led to the increasing application of optical biosensors in many areas of drug discovery, including target identification, ligand fishing, assay development, lead selection, early ADME and manufacturing quality control.
Biomechatronics is an interdisciplinary science that integrates computer controlled mechanical elements into the human body for therapy and augmentation. Most biomechatronic devices resemble conventional orthotics or prosthetics, but biomechatronic devices have the ability to accurately emulate human movement by interfacing directly with a wearer’s muscle and nervous systems to assist or restore motor control.
Any biomechatronic system has four components that make it function: Biosensors, Mechanical Sensors, Controller, and Actuator. Biosensors detect the wearer’s intentions by intercepting signals from the nervous or muscle system and relay them to other parts of the device, such as the controller. Mechanical sensors measure information about the biomechatronic device and relay to the biosensor or controller. The actuator is an artificial muscle that produces force or movement to aid or replace native human body function. Current biomechatronic research focuses on three areas: analyzing human motions, interfacing electronics with humans, and advanced prosthetics. In order to create effective biomechatronic devices, it’s crucial to understand how humans move, our electronic devices must be able to interface with biological processes, and advanced prosthetics must be made to push the development of more complex and effective machines. Some Biotransducer’s are:
Soft, biocompatible, resorbable, flexible, minimally invasive, durable, battery-less and enabling wireless data transfer; these are just a few of the key requirements for state-of-the-art bioelectronic devices for implantation in the body. Sensors and electrodes that mechanically behave like the tissue they are embedded into cause less tissue damage, make better tissue/device interfaces and trigger weaker immune responses.
Drug delivery systems are bringing about technologies for the targeted drug delivery and measured issue of therapeutic agents. Drugs have long been used to improve fitness and extend lives. Biomedical engineers have given considerably to our understanding of the biological barriers to effective drug delivery, such as transport in the circulatory system and drug movement through cells and tissues.
Molecularly Imprinted Polymer (MIP) is a polymer having imprinted a molecule on its surface and the surface is able to interact with the molecule chemically equivalent or at least resembling the template molecule.
Clinical Engineering is the branch of biomedical engineering dealing with the actual implementation of medical equipment and technologies in hospitals or other clinical settings. Clinical engineers also advise and collaborate with medical device producers regarding prospective design improvements based on clinical experiences, as well as monitor the progression of the state of the art so as to redirect procurement patterns accordingly.