Nanotechnology is the study, design, creation, synthesis, manipulation, and application of materials, devices, and systems at the nanometer scale. The prefix Nano is derived from the Greek word dwarf. One nanometer (nm) is equal to one billionth of a meter, that is, 10−9 m. This size range holds so much interest as in this range material can have different and enhanced properties compared with the same material at a larger size. Nanoparticles hold tremendous potential as an effective drug delivery system. In this review we discussed recent developments in nanotechnology for drug delivery. To overcome the problems of gene and drug delivery, nanotechnology has gained interest in recent years. For therapeutic applications, drugs can either be integrated in the matrix of the particle or attached to the particle surface. A drug targeting system should be able to control the fate of a drug entering the biological environment. Nanoparticles can be used in targeted drug delivery at the site of disease to improve the uptake of poorly soluble drugs, the targeting of drugs to a specific site, and drug bioavailability.
Vaccine is Biological Preparation which improves immune to particular diseases. Vaccine is a material that induces an immunologically mediated resistance to a disease but not necessarily an infection. Vaccines are generally composed of killed or attenuated organisms or subunits of organisms or DNA encoding antigenic proteins of pathogens. Sub-unit vaccines though exceptionally selective and specific in reacting with antibodies often fail to show such reactions in circumstances such as shifts in epitomic identification center of antibody and are poorly immunogenic. Vaccines are the preparations given to patients to evoke immune responses leading to the production of antibodies (humoral) or cell-mediated responses that will combat infectious agents or noninfectious conditions such as malignancies. Further, surface engineering of these carriers with ligands, functional moieties and monoclonal antibodies tend to enhance the immune recognition potential of vaccines by differentiation of antigen specific memory T-cells.
Drug delivery systems are an enabling technology that can improve the bioavailability of drugs or add convenience and safety. Some molecules such as oligos and peptides have an intrinsic need for good delivery systems and novel technologies are playing a very important role there. Also, these technologies are essential for enhancing efficacy, reducing risk profile and increasing convenience and compliance. In addition, they are important for introducing products into newer markets such as pediatrics. Drug delivered can have significant effect on its efficacy. Some drugs have an optimum concentration range with in which maximum benefit is derived and concentrations above (or) below the range can be toxic or produce no therapeutic effect. Various drug delivery and drug targeting system are currently under development and being showcased in various targeted drug delivery systems conferences and Novel Drug Delivery system congress across the globe.
Food scientists and technologists apply scientific disciplines including chemistry, engineering, microbiology, and nutrition to the study of food to improve the safety, nutrition, wholesomeness and availability of food. “The science of food, the nutrients and other substances therein, their action, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease and the processes by which the organism ingests, digests, absorbs, transports, utilizes and excretes food substances.” Food Science & Nutrition is an multidisciplinary international peer reviewed open access journal, which obliges the fast dissemination of knowledge and its requisition in the field of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition or, more thoroughly, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, along with delivering up-to-date and definitive scope of both fundamental and clinical gastroenterology.
Biodegradable hydrogels for controlled drug release are based on functionalized polymer systems and are of great importance in polymer therapeutics. The most relevant aspects of biodegradable polymeric hydrogels for the release of specific drugs and bio-active compounds are the nature of biodegradable polymer, the gelation process by physical or chemical crosslinking, and the properties of the bioactive compound. Tethering drug substances to a gel network is an effective way of controlling the release kinetics of hydrogel-based drug delivery systems. Here, we report on in situ forming, biodegradable hydrogels that allow for the covalent attachment of peptides or proteins. Hydrogels were prepared by step-growth polymerization of branched poly(ethylene glycol). The design of bio-degradable hydrogels for drug delivery is an important aspect in the administration of therapeutics, such as the formulation and application of injectable hydrogels, are discussed on the basis of components and bioactive counterparts.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments. The FDA is responsible for protecting and promoting public health through the control and supervision of food safety, tobacco products, dietary supplements, prescription and over-the-counterpharmaceutical drugs (medications), vaccines, biopharmaceuticals, blood transfusions, medical devices, electromagnetic radiationemitting devices cosmetics, animal foods & feed and veterinary products. The U.S. FDA has jurisdiction only within the United States. However, the supply chain for pharmaceuticals often extends far beyond the boundaries of the U.S., so the agency has an interest in assuring that foreign operations part of the U.S. supply chain are in an appropriate state of control, even though they have no legal authority to do so although they can restrict importation into the U.S.
Drug safety and Pharmacovigilance remains a dynamic clinical and scientific discipline. Pharmacovigilance is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as ’the science and activities relating to the detection, assessment, understanding and prevention of adverse effects or any other drug-related problem. It plays a vital role in ensuring that doctors, together with the patient, have enough information to make a decision when it comes to choosing a drug for treatment. However, despite all their benefits, evidence continues to get those bigger adverse reactions to medicines which are common, yet often preventable, cause of illness, disability and even death. In some countries, adverse drug reactions (ADRs) rank among the top 10 leading causes of mortality. In order to prevent or to reduce harm to patients and thus improve public health, mechanisms for evaluating and monitoring the safety of medicines in clinical use are vital. A complex and vital relationship exists between wide ranges of partners in the practice of drug safety monitoring. These partners must jointly anticipate, understand and respond to the continually increasing demands and expectations of the public, health administrators, policy officials, politicians and health professionals.
Nanomedicine is simply the nanotechnology applications in a healthcare setting and the majority of benefits that have already been seen involve the use of nanoparticles to improve the behaviour of drug substances and in drug delivery. Today, nanomedicines are used globally to improve the treatments and lives of patients suffering from a range of disorders including ovarian and breast cancer, kidney disease, fungal infections, elevated cholesterol, menopausal symptoms, multiple sclerosis, chronic pain, asthma and emphysema. Nano medicine has the potential to develop radical new therapies based on an unprecedented control over both intracellular processes and the extracellular environment at the nanometer scale.Nanomedicine and drugdelivery will account for 40% of a $136 billion nanotechnology-enabled drug delivery market by 2021. We forecast the total market size in 2021 to be US$136 billion, with a 60/40 split between nano medicine and drug delivery respectively, although developing new targeted delivery mechanisms may allow more value to be created for companies and entrepreneurs. The field of Nano Delivery now has pivotal roles in electronics, biology and medicine. Its application can be appraised, as it involves the materials to be designed at atomic and molecular level. Due to the advantage of their size, nanospheres have been shown to be robust drug delivery systems and may be useful for encapsulating drugs and enabling more precise targeting with a controlled release. In this review specifically, we highlight the recent advances of this technology for medicine and drug delivery systems. Nanomaterials range from 10–200 nm up to a few micrometres in size, and include nano- and microparticles, nanotubes and quantum dots.
The new drug target discovery and exploitation is a key for both the pharmaceutical industry and academic research. To ensure an insight into trends in the exploitation of new drug targets analysed the drugs that were approved by the US Food and Drug Administration.The main drawbacks in systemic drug administration are Lack of drug affinity towards the pathological site and nonspecific toxicity and other adverse effects so drug targeting may resolve some these problems. For therapeutic and cosmetic modification of hair, we have developed a hair-follicle-selective macromolecule and small molecule targeting system with topical application of phosphatidylcholine-based liposomes. Liposome-entrapped melanins, proteins, genes, and small-molecules have been selectively targeted to the hair follicle and hair shafts of mice. Liposomal delivery of these molecules is time dependent. Negligible amounts of delivered molecules enter the dermis, epidermis, or bloodstream thereby demonstrating selective follicle delivery. Naked molecules are trapped in the stratum corneum and are unable to enter the follicle molecular and macromolecular drugs including the design and characterization of carrier systems (whether colloidal, protein or polymeric) for both vitro and/or in vivo applications of these drugs. Papers are not restricted to drugs delivered by way of a carrier, but also include studies on molecular and macromolecular drugs that are designed to target specific cellular or extra-cellular molecules.
Pharmaceutical formulation in pharmaceutics is the process in which various chemical substances including the vigorous drug are joined to produce a final medicinal product. Formulation studies involve developing a preparation of the drug which is both stable and acceptable to the patient. For orally taken drugs, this usually contains combining the drug into a tablet or a capsule. Formulations confirm that the drug is compatible with these other substances. In the pharmaceutical drug formulation, the different physical, chemical, and mechanical properties of a drug are considered so as to know what other ingredients should be used in the preparation. The various factors like polymorphism, particle size, pH, and solubility are all considered while formulating the drug, also considering the appearance of the tablet. The drug subjected to drug development undergoes number of trials and are screened at different stages to produce a final potent drug intended for the treatment of various diseases. During this process various properties are checked to see whether the drug is non-toxic to living system and is therapeutic or not. Using suitable excipients and technological preparations the active substances are formulated into final dosage form. The last product is the Actual composition of preparation, manufacturing specification.
Anticancer drug, also called antineoplastic drug, any drug that remains effective in the treatment of malignant, or cancerous, disease. There are several major classes of anticancer drugs; these include alkylating agents, antimetabolites, natural products, and hormones. In addition, there are a number of drugs that do not fall within those classes but that demonstrate anticancer activity and therefore are used in the treatment of malignant disease Anticancer drug, also called antineoplastic drug, any drug that remains effective in the treatment of malignant, or cancerous, disease. There are several major classes of anticancer drugs; these include alkylating agents, antimetabolites, natural products, and hormones. In addition, there are a number of drugs that do not fall within those classes but that demonstrate anticancer activity and therefore are used in the treatment of malignant disease.
In discovery process includes the primary phases of research, which are designed to categorize an investigational drug and perform primary tests in the lab. This first stage of the process takes approximately three to six years. By the end, researchers hope to identify a promising drug aspirant to further study in the lab and in animal models, and then in people. In revelation process incorporates the early periods of research, which are intended to recognize a drug and perform essential tests in the lab. This initially phase of the procedure takes around three to six years. Before the end, scientists plan to distinguish a promising medication competitor to additionally think about in the lab and in creature models, and afterward in individuals. These advances offer extraordinary guarantee, yet additionally add unpredictability to the Research and development process. With a specific end goal to guarantee the wellbeing and viability of customized treatment that are utilized close by diagnostics, clinical trial conventions must be adjusted and upgraded. This may require the utilization of extra systems and assets, and in addition new or creative types of information accumulation. In addition, by their extremely nature, the patient populace distinguished to react to focused treatments is smaller, which makes tolerant enrolment more troublesome.