Immunology is the study of the immune system and is a very important branch of the medical and biological sciences. The immune system protects us from infection through various lines of defence. If the immune system is not functioning as it should, it can result in disease, such as autoimmunity, allergy and cancer. It is also now becoming clear that immune responses contribute to the development of many common disorders not traditionally viewed as immunologic, including metabolic, cardiovascular, and neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer’s.
With the worldwide spread of the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) resulting in declaration of a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) on March 11, 2020, the SARS-CoV-2-induced coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) has become one of the main challenges of our times. The high infection rate and the severe disease course led to major safety and social restriction measures worldwide. There is an urgent need of unbiased expert knowledge guiding the development of efficient treatment and prevention strategies.
Tumour immunology refers to the interaction of immune cells with cancer cells. T cells and natural killer cells are involved in tumour immune surveillance. Tumour immunology is a collaborative branch of biology that is concerned with the role of the immune system in the advancement and evolution of cancer; the familiar application is cancer immunotherapy, which utilises the immune system as a treatment for cancer.
Every immune segment has its own component pathways for creation and capacity. Sub-atomic and cell factors associated with these components should likewise be concentrated to get an understanding on the resistant framework and find answers for any safe issue. Sub-atomic and cell systems which intercede unfavourably susceptible aggravation include a few various go between, cell type and lymphocytes/interleukins pathways. Sensitivity or unfavourably susceptible maladies is caused because of excessive touchiness of safe framework in light of the hereditary qualities or natural components. The side effects extend from Rhinitis, irritation, Allergic urticaria, Atopic dermatitis, Conjunctivitis, Angioedema and Anaphylaxis. The remedy for a few includes treatments, immunizations, Antihistamines, Decongestants, Moisturizing creams (emollients) and Steroid drug.
Reproductive immunology refers to a field of medicine that studies interactions (or the absence of them) between the immune system and components related to the reproductive system, such as maternal immune tolerance towards the fetus, or immunological interactions across the blood-testis barrier.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma are the causes of respiratory symptoms. These affects the organs and tissues that make gas exchange possible in higher organisms, and includes conditions of the upper respiratory tract, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, and the nerves and muscles of breathing.
Immunotherapy is one of the preventive treatment technique utilized against hypersensitivity and other safe issue like asthma, rhinitis, malignant growth etc. Immunotherapy is utilized to treat Cancer, asthma, allergy and more. It can be enacted, stifled, helminthic, subcutaneous, sublingual and adjuvant immunotherapy. The engraftment or move of cells, tissues or organs for the restoration of body capacities is transplantation and the procedure includes a few kinds like Allograft, Xenograft and so forth. A few morals and guidelines are worried about the procedure and as the quantity of hypersensitivity cases has expanded after the transplant.
Immunodiagnostics are a group of clinical diagnostics which uses diagnostic techniques that make use of the immune system of the body.It plays a major role in understanding about various diseases in humans. These tests come in different types as they can be performed on serum. The techniques are easy to perform and decipher the diseased state of a person. New immunoassay formats and diagnostics are being introduced daily. Microfluidics is another prominent advancement in immunodiagnostics and has led to the discovery of microfluidic chips and rapid immunoassays.
Autoimmune disease is a condition when the body sees its own tissue as a threat and attacks it. Abnormal immune responses bring about autoimmune diseases. Women are commonly affected by autoimmune diseases than men. The pathological effects of autoimmune diseases include damage of tissues, altered organ growth and changed organ function.HIV is a group of conditions that is caused as a result of the infection by human immunodeficiency virus. HIV/AIDS has affected society, both as a disease and as a source of separation. The vital cells such as T cells, macrophages and dendritic cells are infected by HIV.
Like many other systems in the body, the immune system is not fully functional at birth and therefore we are at an increased risk of infection. At the same time, the act of being born – moving from the sterile environment of the womb to the wider world, exposes us to a whole range of pathogens that we have never encountered and have no protection against. To supplement this period of immune immaturity and reduce the risk of infection, the mother transfers passive protection to the child, mainly in the form of antibody.
Paediatric Allergy and Immunology is a medical specialty focused on the care of children with allergies, asthma, eczema, and immune system disorders. Pediatric allergist-immunologists try to find the causes of a childâ€™s illness and use treatments to reduce symptoms. Treatments may include avoiding allergy triggers, taking medications, or receiving allergy shots.
Immunization is a key component of primary health care and an indisputable human right. It’s also one of the best health investments money can buy. Vaccines are also critical to the prevention and control of infectious-disease outbreaks. They underpin global health security and will be a vital tool in the battle against antimicrobial resistance.
Most ideal approach to anticipate hypersensitivity is allergen shirking. A few nourishment allergens like peanuts, fish, milk, egg, and soybean can be stayed away from. Medication allergens, residue and pet creatures can likewise be kept away from to be unfavourably susceptible free. Other counteractive action strategies include restrictive bosom nourishing for first 4 months of life, incorporation of Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Omega-3 polyunsaturated oils and great probiotic microbes in diet, utilization of Leukotriene receptor rivals, steroid splashes, Decongestants and so on. Inoculation, Immunotherapy and transplantation are presently the generally utilized methodologies towards hypersensitivity and safe issue treatment. Quality treatment is the propelled remedial way to deal with battle hypersensitivity and safe issue.