Otolaryngology examines diagnoses and treats disorders, diseases, and injuries of the ear, nose, and throat. It also recommends and orders tests to determine the extent of the disease or help diagnose the condition.
- General ENT History, Ear examination, Nasal Examination, Neck, and thyroid status exam, Cranial Nerves Examination
Otology is a branch of medicine that studies normal and pathological anatomy and physiology of the ear (hearing and vestibular sensory systems and related structures and functions) as well as their diseases, diagnosis, and treatment.
- Ear Anatomy, Dizziness, and Vertigo, Hearing Loss, Tinnitus, Facial Nerve Palsy, Otalgia, Otorrhoea, Otitis Externa, Acute Otitis Media, Otitis Media with Effusion (OME), Chronic Otitis Media, Cholesteatoma
Rhinology is the medical science devoted to the anatomy, physiology, and diseases of the nose and the paranasal sinuses.
- Nasal Function and Anatomy, Epistaxis, Nasal obstruction, Fractured Nose, Rhinitis and Rhinosinusitis, Allergic Rhinitis, Non-Allergic Rhinitis, Acute Rhinosinusitis (ARS), Chronic Rhinosinusitis (CRS), Nasal Polyps, Other Sinonasal Lesions, Cleft Lip and Palate
It is a surgical subspecialty within medicine that deals with the surgical and medical management of conditions of the head and neck.
- Head and Neck Anatomy, Facial Muscles, Blood Supply to the Face and Neck, The Major Salivary Glands, Oral Cavity, Topography of the Neck, Fascial Layers of the Neck, Nervous Supply of the Head and Neck, Physiology of Swallowing, Taking History of a Neck Lump and its causes, Branchial Cysts, Dysphagia, Dysphonia, Tonsillitis, Pharyngeal Pouch, Globus Pharyngeus
Thyroid masses are endothorax goiters, generally originating from the migration of a cervical goiter and rarely from an ectopic thyroid gem in the mediastinum.
- Thyroglossal cyst or sinus, Multinodular goitre, Thyroid cancer, Benign and Malignant Neoplasms of the Salivary Glands, Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity, Carcinoma of the pharynx, Carcinoma of the Larynx, Laryngopharygeal reflux (LPR), Snoring and Obstructive Sleep Apnoea (OSA)
Ear, Nose, and Throat Emergencies are rare but can be life-threatening.
- Acute Airway Obstruction, Epistaxis (Nose Bleed), foreign body in the nose, Nasal septum haematoma, foreign body in the ear, Perforated Tympanic Membrane, FB in the pharynx or oesophagus, Deep neck space infections, Penetrating neck trauma
Medications occur in different combinations to treat the symptoms.
- Antibiotics, Steroids, Antihistamines, Vestibular sedatives, and Meniere’s disease
Universal precautions, a good headlight, and suction (Zollner or Fraser) are useful.
- Nasal Cautery, Anterior Nasal Packing, Nasendoscopy, Oto-Microscopy, and Foreign Body Removal
ENT Investigations include an assessment of hearing as well as the appearance of the ear, functioning of the nose, airway resistance, and occasionally a sense of smell. It includes looking into the mouth and pharynx and a thorough examination of the oral cavity.
- Pure Tone Audiometry, Tympanometry, Hearing Tests in Children
ENT Surgeons have experience performing various ear, nose, and throat procedures.
- Grommet Insertion, Middle ear, and Mastoid Surgery, Tonsillectomy, Adenoidectomy, Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery (FESS), Parotidectomy, Thyroidectomy, Neck Dissection, Surgical Tracheostomy
Audiology is a branch of science that deals with hearing and hearing-related disorders. Speech and Language Pathology deals with the normal and abnormal aspects of voice, speech, language, and swallowing.
- Differential diagnosis and management of voice disorders, speech sound disorder, stuttering, hearing impairment, intellectual disability, cerebral palsy, cleft palate, autism spectrum disorders, oral and laryngeal cancers, stroke/ paralysis, and learning disorders, assessment and management of vestibular disorders, auditory processing disorders.