The realm of agricultural entomology includes all basic studies of beneficial and pest insects associated with agricultural crops and farm animals. The starting point of such studies is a correct identification of the insect species, in accordance with the science known as biosystematics. Farmers - Crops and food products are consumed or spoiled by insects. Entomologists are working to sustain optimal agricultural production throughout the world. By identifying endangered species and studying their ecosystems, entomologists work to protect the environment and restore threatened habitats. Entomology is crucial to our understanding of human disease, agriculture, evolution, ecology and biodiversity. Entomologists are people who study insects, as a career, as amateurs or both.
The terms “biological control have been used in different fields of biology In plant pathology, the term applies to the use of microbial antagonists to suppress diseases as well as the use of host-specific pathogens to control weed populations the organism that suppresses the pest or pathogen is referred to as the biological control agent . A wide variety of chemicals called antimicrobial agents are available for controlling the growth of microbes such as Chemotherapeutic agents Disinfectants Antiseptics
The main aim of plant disease management is to reduce the economic and aesthetic damage caused by plant diseases. Traditionally, this has been called plant disease control, but current social and environmental values deem control as being absolute and the term too rigid Disease fungi take their energy from the plants on which they live. They are responsible for a great deal of damage and are characterized by wilting, scabs, moldy coatings, rusts, and blotches and rotted tissue. Removal of diseased plant tissues on the plant itself is your next line of defense. Prune out diseased foliage, twigs or branches, hand pick blighted camellia blossoms as they appear and dispose of these in the trash.
The vegetables including potato, tuber crops, mushroom, has become a key drivers for economic development in many of the states in the country Hence adoption of suitable management measures with low residue levels in the final produces becomes a requirements. Mostly there are two types of diseases which can be seen in vegetables that is due to fungus and bacteria
Crop research might be characterized as action coordinated to making the generation, promoting and utilization of business Crops more proficient and gainful. Consequently, edit research may include any or the majority of the accompanying: Plant Breeding, plant physiology and Biochemistry Yields incorporate grain and Oil seed Crops, Forages, claim to fame crops, Vegetables, Fruits and OrnamentalSeed science is the analysis of the structure and advancement of seeds from the snapshot of treatment of the egg cell on the maternal plant until the point that arrangement of another plant from the seed. Seed science is partitioned into two segments carpology, studies the seeds and products of wild plants, .
Plant disease epidemiology is the study of disease in plant populations plant diseases occur due to pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, oomycetes, nematodes, phytoplasmas, protozoa, and parasitic plants. Plant disease epidemiologists strive for an understanding of the cause and effects of disease and develop strategies to intervene in situations where crop losses may occur. The study of epidemics and factors influencing them is called epidemiology Plant disease epidemiology studies the spatial and temporal dynamics as well as the ecology of the interaction between populations of plant pathogens, plant hosts, and the environment.
Root diseases are generally less severe owing to greater soil health, whereas some foliar diseases can be problematic in organic agriculture. The soil microbial community and nitrogen availability play an important role in disease development and yield. Demand for safe and healthy food has been increasing with every passing day. The ill effects of plant protection chemicals on the flora, fauna, humans and environment as a whole are the major concerns. Disease management in OF is largely based on the maintenance of biological diversity and soil health by balanced crop rotations, including nitrogen-fixing and cover crops, intercrops, additions of manure and compost and reductions in soil tillage
Fungi are among the dominant causal agents of plant diseases. To colonize plants and cause disease, pathogenic fungi use diverse strategies. Some fungi kill their hosts and feed on dead material, while others colonize the living tissue For successful invasion of plant organs, pathogenic development is tightly regulated and specialized infection structures are formed. To further colonize hosts and establish disease, fungal pathogens deploy a plethora of virulence factors In contrast, biotrophs utilize effector molecules to suppress plant cell death and manipulate plant metabolism in favor of the pathogen
Plant Nutrients are the substance components that are fundamental to the sustenance of plant well being. Plant Nutrients fall into three classes, which are all founded on the sum a plant needs, not the significance of the individual components. Each plant supplement plays out a vital job in plant development and advancement. For plants, soil is important because it has roots that provide plant support and store nutrients. The plants need water and the soil has minerals, while the air has carbon dioxide. The important elements required by plants are macro nutrients and micro nutrients. Soil quality is a major factor in the distribution and growth of plants. Loam soil is the best soil for the plants, as it contains a nice balance of silt, sand, and clay along with humus
Plant pathology is the scientific study of diseases in plants caused by pathogens and environmental conditions. Organisms that cause infectious disease include fungi, bacteria, viruses, viroids, virus-like organisms, phytoplasma, protozoa, nematodes and parasitic plants. Weed Science is the study of vegetation management in agriculture, aquatics, horticulture, right-of-way, essentially anywhere plants need to be managed. It involves the study of all the tools available for this purpose such as cropping systems, herbicides, and management techniques and seed genetics. However, it is not just the controlling of plants, but the study of these plants.
Field of plant pathology that deal with the study of viruses & virus like pathogens and diseases caused by organisms and it employs all the principles and practices of plant pathology Many plant pathogens, particularly fungi, can be controlled by the application of chemicals which interfere in some way with the metabolism of the invading pathogen, and so prevent or ameliorate disease. Some of the viral diseases in plants area Morphology, Pathogen Biology and it can be controlled by Chemical Applications Genetic Host Resistance Cultural Practices Scouting cutting, grafting or propagating seedlings vegetatively and Biological control