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April 23-24, 2021
at 09:00 AM JST
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Tokyo, Japan

Stem Cells Research -2021 explains  Stem cells are undifferentiated or partially differentiated cells that can vary  into different types of cells  where they are usually distinguished from progenitor cells, which cannot divide indefinitely, and precursor or blast cells They exist to refill rapidly lost cell types and are multi potent or unipotent, meaning they only transform into a few cell types or one cell type. The first therapy using stem cells was a bone marrow transplant performed by French oncologist Georges Mathé in 1958 on five workers at the Vinča Nuclear Institute in Yugoslavia who had been attacked by a very critical accident, where they all survived.

Stem Cells Research -2021 describes the classical derivation of a stem cell acquires that it possesses two properties:

Self-renewal: The ability to go through various cycles of cell growth and cell division, also called as cell proliferation, which helps in maintaining the undifferentiated state. Two mechanisms ensure that a stem cell population is maintained:

1. Asymmetric cell division: A stem cell divides into one mother cell, which is similar to the original stem cell, and other daughter cell, which is transformed.

When a stem cell self-restore, it divides and does not disrupt the undifferentiated state. This self-restored demands control of cell cycle as well as upkeep of multipotency, which all depends on the stem cell.

2. Stochastic differentiation: When one stem cell grows and divides into two different daughter cells, another stem cell undergoes mitosis and forms two stem cells similar to the original.

Stem cells use telomerase, a protein that restores telomeres, to protect their DNA and extend their cell division limit.

Potency: The capacity to transform into specialized cell types. In the precise manner, this requires stem cells to be either totipotent or pluripotent—to be able to give rise to any mature cell type, although multipotent or unipotent progenitor cells are sometimes referred to as stem cells. Apart from this, it is said that stem cell function is regulated in a feedback mechanism.

 

Stem Cells Research – 2021 elucidates that Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are known to be multipotent, which are only seen in adult tissues like in the muscle, liver, bone marrow. Mesenchymal stem cells usually function as structural support in various organs as mentioned above, and control the movement of substances. MSC can differentiate into various cell categories as an instance of adipocytes, osteocytes, and chondrocytes, derived by the mesodermal layer. Whereas the mesoderm  layer provides an increase to the body’s skeletal elements, such as relating to the cartilage or bone. These are well-known to be essential for regenerative medicine. Since they are easily isolated and obtain high yield, high plasticity, which makes able to facilitate inflammation and encourage cell growth, cell differentiation, and restoring tissue.

 

 Stem Cells Research – 2021 illustrates Gene therapy is a procedure that uses genes to treat or prevent disease. It is designed to introduce genetic material into cells to remunerate for abnormal genes or to make a beneficial protein. If a mutated gene causes a necessary protein to be faulty, gene therapy may be able to introduce a normal copy of the gene to renew the function of the protein. The concept of gene therapy is to fix a genetic problem at its source. This strategy is referred to as gene replacement therapy and is enrolled to treat inherited retinal diseases. 

 

Stem Cells Research- 2021 explains Gene therapy may be classified into two types:

1.      Somatic cell gene therapy

2.      Germline gene therapy

In somatic cell gene therapy (SCGT), the therapeutic genes are transferred into any cell other than a gamete, germ cell, gametocyte, or untransformed stem cell. Any such changes affect the individual patient only, and are not inherited by offspring. Somatic gene therapy represents mainstream basic and clinical research, in which therapeutic DNA is used to treat disease

In germline gene therapy (GGT), germ cells (sperm or egg cells) are revised by the introduction of functional genes into their genomes. Revising a germ cell causes all the organism's cells to contain the modified gene. The change is hence heritable and passed on to later generations.

Stem Cells Research- 2021 derives Gene therapy utilizes the delivery of DNA into cells, which can be fulfilled by several methods. The two major categories

  1. Recombinant viruses (also called as viral methods).
  2. Naked DNA or DNA complexes (non-viral methods).

Viral methods:

All viruses bind to their hosts and introduce their genetic material into the host cell as part of their replication cycle. This genetic material contains basic procedures of how to produce more copies of these viruses, hacking the body's normal production machinery to serve the needs of the virus. The host cell will carry out these procedures and produce additional copies of the virus, leading to more and more cells becoming infected. Some types of viruses insert their genome into the host's cytoplasm, but do not actually enter the cell. Others penetrate the cell membrane disguised as protein molecules and enter the cell.

  • Retro viruses- The genetic material in retroviruses is in the form of RNA molecules, whereas in the genetic material of their hosts is in the form of DNA. When a retrovirus infects a host cell, it will release its RNA together with some enzymes, known as Reverse Transcriptase and Integrate, into the cell.

 

  • Adenoviruses- These are the viruses that carry their genetic material in the form of double-stranded DNA. They cause respiratory, intestinal, and eye infections in humans. When these viruses infect a host cell, they introduce their DNA molecule into the host. The genetic material of the adenoviruses is not included into the host cell's genetic material.

Non-Viral Methods:

  • Electroporation: Electroporation is a method that uses short pulses of high voltage to carry DNA across the cell membrane. This shock is used to cause temporary formation of pores in the cell membrane, allowing DNA molecules to pass through. More recently a newer method of electroporation, termed electron-avalanche transfection, has been used in gene therapy experiments. By using a high-voltage plasma discharge, DNA was favourably delivered following very short pulses. Compared to electroporation, the technique resulted in greatly increased efficiency and less cellular damage.
  • Gene gun: The use of particle bombardment, or the gene gun, is another physical method of DNA transfection. In this procedure, DNA is coated on the gold particles and loaded into a device which provide a force to achieve penetration of the DNA into the cells, leaving the gold behind on a "stopping" disk.
  • Sonoporation: It uses ultrasonic frequencies to deliver DNA into cells. The process of acoustic cavitation is thought to disrupt the cell membrane and allow DNA to move into cells.
  • Magnetofection: In this method, DNA is complexed to magnetic particles, and a magnet is placed under the tissue culture dish to bring DNA complexes into contact with a cell monolayer.

 

 

 

Stem Cells Research -2021  explains Pluripotent Stem Cells:

Human Pluripotent Stem Cells (hPSCs) are characterized by their capacity to self-renew and separate into any cell type of the human body. To fully utilize potential of hPSCs for translational research and clinical applications, it is critical to develop rigorous cell separation protocols under feeder-free conditions that are efficient, reproducible, and versatile for high-throughput projects. Focusing on neural change of hPSCs, here we describe robust small molecule-based procedures that generate neural stem cells (NSCs) in less than seven days under chemically defined conditions. These protocols can be utilized to dissect the mechanisms of neural lineage entry and to further develop systematic protocols that produce the cellular diversity of the central nervous system at industrial scale. The most notable type of Pluripotent stem cells is the embryonic stem cell. However, since the generation of embryonic stem cells involves destruction of the pre-implantation stage embryo, there has been a lot of debate surrounding their use. Further, because embryonic stem cells can only be derived from embryos, it has so far not been possible to make patient-matched embryonic stem cell lines.

 

Stem Cells Research- 2021 Stem cells have furnished much hope by promising to greatly extend the numbers and range of patients who could benefit from transplants, and to deliver cell replacement therapy to treat debilitating diseases like diabetes, Parkinson's and Huntington's disease. The issue of stem cell research is politically charged, prompting biologists to begin engaging in ethical debates, and creating in the general public an high level of interest in this aspect of biology.

 

 Stem Cells Research- 2021 The focal scope of stem cells  that covers wide range of Cellular origin of cancer stem cells ,Genetic constraints, and also epigenetic modifications, that influence growth process and cancer stem cells as therapeutic targets , mathematical models of cancer cell evolution and mechanisms of survival, embryonic Stem Cells, Signaling pathways/factors regulating and/or initiating ESC/iPS cells pluripotency and differentiation , Stem cell transplantation and technologies that will maintain, improve or restore the function of diseased organs, Gene therapies for inherited diseases.

 

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