The Virology that realtes to Medical parasitology traditionally has included the study of three major groups of animals: parasitic protozoa, parasitic helminthic (worms), and those arthropods that directly cause disease or act as vectors of various pathogens. A parasite is a pathogen that simultaneously injures and derives sustenance from its host. Some organisms called parasites are actually commensals, in that they neither benefit nor harm their host (for example, Endamoeba coli).
Infections of humans caused by parasites number in the billions and range from relatively innocuous to fatal. The diseases caused by these parasites constitute major human health problems throughout the world. (For example, approximately 30 % of the world's population is infected with the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides.)
Other parasitic illnesses have increased in importance as a result of the AIDS epidemic (e.g., cryptosporidiosis, Pneumocystis carina pneumonia, and strongyloidiasis).
Molecular biology is most advance form of research field to detect the infection by going through the molecular composition of virus. Molecular therapy includes various types of techniques such as DNA cloning, proliferation of DNA, bacterial transformation , transfection, chromosome integration, cellular screening, cellular culture, extraction of DNA, DNA polymerase DNA dependent, reading and writing DNA, DNA sequencing, DNA synthesis, hybridization. Most important techniques are polymerase chain reaction(PCR), Southern blotting, Northern blotting. Viral therapy for cancer, also called oncolytic viral therapy. Oncolytic viral therapy can be use for the treatment of pancreatic cancer or pancreas cancer.
Many plant pathogens, particularly fungi, can be controlled by the application of chemicals which interfere in some way with the metabolism of the invading pathogen, and so prevent or ameliorate disease. Unfortunately, these methods cannot be used so extensively to control plant viruses. Having few, if any, enzymes of their own, viruses depend either on enzymes already in host cells or on those that are induced as a result of infection. These enzymes are responsible for nucleic acid and protein synthesis, and chemical interruption of their activity disrupts similar enzymes essential for the normal functioning of cells. Chemical attack on viruses often results in death of cells and tissues and possibly of whole plants. Control measures other than direct chemical attack on the viral pathogen must be attempted. A knowledge of the identity of the invading virus or viruses, the source of infection and the means of viral transmission, allows control measures to be formulated. Prevention, or at least alleviation, of the effects of viruses, involves:
Viruses are smaller and simpler in construction than unicellular microorganisms, and they contain only one type of nucleic acid—either DNA or RNA—never both. As viruses have no ribosomes, mitochondria, or other organelles, they are completely dependent on their cellular hosts for energy production and protein synthesis. They replicate only within cells of the host that they infect. Animal virology developed largely from the need to control viral diseases in humans and their domesticated animals. Viruses, like other infectious agents, enter the animal body through one of its surfaces. They then spread either locally on one of the body surfaces or through lymphatic and blood vessels to produce systemic infection. Iridoviridae and African Swine Fever Virus, adenovirus, Papillomavirus and Polyomavirus, herpes virus are some of the major viruses causing diseases in cattle. At least one major disease of each domestic animal species except sheep is caused by a herpes virus, including such important diseases as infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, pseudo rabies, and Marek's disease. However, there are several approaches to their prevention, control, and eradication. The most generally useful control measure is the use of vaccines.
Diagnosis of any probable viral infection with the help of various tests such as, specific, assorted or conventional tests to identify the causative virus. Multiple methods are in use for laboratory diagnosis in probing the viral infections, including serology, viral culture, antigen detection, and nucleic acid detection. Due to various developments in the technology, we see high-end and quite impressive immunologic and molecular diagnostic tests are developed to provide more accurate results and to detect the viruses- type, number and to identify their pathogenicity as well. This field provides specific recommendations for diagnostic approach to clinically important viral infections.
The most number of affected pregnant women is increasing, but scarce information is available about the clinical features Obstetrics Infections outcomes of pregnant patients with COVID-19 in pregnancy caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus Moreover maternal, fatal, and neonatal outcomes of patients who were infected in late pregnancy appeared very good, and these outcomes were achieved with intensive, active management that might be the best practice in the absence of more robust data.
The clinical characteristics of these patients with COVID-19 during pregnancy were similar to those of non-pregnant adults with COVID-19 clinical symptoms from 33 Infections with or at risk of COVID-19 were mild and outcomes were favourable of the 3 neonates with symptomatic COVID-19, presented with early-onset SARS-CoV-2 infection. Because strict infection control and prevention procedures were implemented during the delivery, it is likely that the sources of SARS-CoV-2 in the clinical findings or investigations suggestive of COVID-19 affected to mothers, and all samples, including amniotic fluid, cord blood, and breast milk, were negative for SARS-CoV-2. Therefore, it is crucial to screen pregnant women and implement strict infection control measures, quarantine of infected mothers, and close monitoring of at risk of COVID-19.
In all the Zika virus typically leads to mild febrile cases, with most being asymptomatic, Ebola has severe symptoms. They are an animal origin in other words, a zoonoses. Ebola has high mortality rate Zika virus not. The Ebola can only be transmitted when symptoms are present.
“Outbreak” is a term referring to a virus or a parasite that is transmitted very aggressively and therefore could potentially cause fatalities, as the recent Ebola and Zika epidemics did. Nevertheless, looking back through history, quite a few outbreaks have been reported, which turned out so deadly that essentially changed, molded and literally re-shaped the society as it is today
For the consern HIV and STDs are the simultaneous infections of a host by multiple pathogen species. There are different co-infections that are associated with STD especially with HIV which leads to lethal condition and worsens the condition of the individual. Co-infection is of particular human health importance because these pathogen species can interact within the host. The net effect of the co-infection on human health is thought to be negative but these Interactions can have either positive or negative effects on other parasites. Under positive parasite interactions, disease transmission and progression are enhanced which is also known as syndemism and in negative parasite interactions include microbial interference when one bacterial species suppresses the virulence or colonisation of other bacteria.