Veterinary medicine deals with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases, disorders and injuries in animals. Veterinary medicine has wide scope, covering all animal species both domesticated and wild. It is widely practiced with and without professional supervision. Professional care is often led by a veterinary physician and by Para veterinary workers such as veterinary nurses and technicians.
Animal welfare is a concern based on the beliefs that non-human animals are sentient and that consideration should be given to their wellbeing and suffering, especially when they are under the control of humans. Animal welfare science is a field that seeks to answer the questions raised by keeping and use of animals in medicinal experiments.
Camels are mammals of the Camelidae family. Camels form the genus Camelus. They are also called Afro-Asiatic Camelids. There are two living species of camels.Camels live in deserts, where it is hot and dry. Science which deals with camles is Camel Science, it deals with body organs and functioning.
Food safety may be a discipline describing handling, preparation, and storage of food in ways in which stop foodborne. This includes variety of routines that to be followed to avoid potential health hazards. during this manner food safety usually overlaps with food defense to forestall hurt to shoppers. In developed countries there square measure involved standards for food preparation, whereas in lesser developed countries there square measure less standards and social control of these standards. Food safety may be a major focus of food biological science.
Food microbiology is the study of the microorganisms that inhabit, create, or contaminate food, including the study of microorganisms causing food spoilage, pathogens that may cause disease especially if food is improperly cooked or stored, those used to produce fermented foods such as cheese, yogurt, bread, beer, and wine, and those with other useful roles such as producing probiotics. Several microbially produced biopolymers are used in the food industry.
Human beings are only one kind of animals known to possess and take care for other species. They keep all manner of animals for reasons ranging from food and material production, friendship, and decoration. People believe that when they take responsibility for an animal, they are required to provide proper care for them.
Clinical veterinary research is a way behind the human medicinal research, with the less randomized trials. Veterinary diagnosis helps human health through the monitoring and control of infectious diseases transmitted from non-human animals to humans, food safety, and indirectly through human applications from basic medical research.
Poultry farming and management is the process of raising domesticated birds such as chickens, ducks, turkeys and geese to the purpose of farming meat for food. According to the researches 70 percent of poultry meat, and 65 percent of eggs are produced in intensive ways. Alternative for intensive poultry farming is free range farming using lower stocking densities. It mainly focusses on finances of farming, production practices, management and resource use.
Domesticated animals raised in an agricultural community to produce food and sometimes only for farmed ruminants such as cattle and goats. In recent era some organization have also raised livestock to promote the survival of rare breeds. Livestock are raised for different purposes, many of which have economic value. Livestock products are meat, dairy products, clothing and adornment, fertilizer, labor, land management and conservation.
Animal research and development investigates how organisms function, behave and develop. Applied animal research aims to solve specific and practical problems, compared to basic research it is largely academic in origin and it is carried out in the pharmaceutical industries or by universities in commercial partnerships.
Animal reproduction plays an important role in providing the existence of animal species in a continues cycle. In modern times animal genetics witnessed tremendous growth, which is mainly associated with advances in animal breeding technology, genetic trait tests, and DNA type and genetic disease tests.
Veterinary pathology is the study of diagnosis of diseases through the examination of animal tissue and body fluids. Veterinary anatomical pathology is deals with the diagnosis of disease based on the examination, microscopic and molecular examination of organs and tissues. Clinical pathology deals with the diagnosis of disease based on the laboratory analysis of body fluids such blood and urine.
Veterinary dentistry is the science of diagnosis, treatment and prevention of conditions and diseases of oral cavity and its associated structures as related to animals. Some oral diseases may be the result of systematic problem and some may result in systematic complications, in all cases dental procedures plays an important role.
Meat science and technology is the study of meat and its products, including its production, preparation and preservation. Some meat researchers and scientists are studying the methods of producing artificial meat such as cultures of muscle cells.
Animal cloning is a useful technique for producing transgenic farm animals and it is used to be produce clones from valuable species, such as for preserving endangered breeds. Cloning promises great advantages for research and commerce. In these process veterinarians have an important role to play in improving the efficiency of cloning by finding preventive and curative care for cloned neonates.
Animal testing is a process using non-human animals in experiments that seek to control the variable behavior and biological system under study, this approach can be contrasted with field studies in which animals are observed in their own environment. Animal model testing generally conducted in universities, medical schools, pharmaceutical companies.
Animal diseases impact the human health, food supplies, trade and commerce in every part of the world, this draw the attention of those in agriculture, regulatory agencies and government, as well as public. Agriculture community should have a global disease awareness of disease risks and develop plans of action to deal with them.
Animal nutrition primarily focuses on the dietary needs of domesticated animals, mainly those in food production and agriculture. There are some different categories in the nutrients like carbohydrates, minerals, proteins, vitamins, fats and fibre. The macronutrients provide structural materials and energy. Micronutrients like phytochemicals and antioxidants influence some body systems. Food contain a mix of some or all the nutrient classes together with other substances.
Ecological studies consist of areas such as animal species and their taxonomic relations, animal distribution and abundance within their range, and their environment. Ecologist operates with data gathered in the field and physiologist conduct experimental studies on the structure and function of animal tissues and organs.
Milk producing animals have been domesticated for hundreds of years, initially they were part of the human community. In the more recent past people in agriculture community domesticated dairy animals that they milked for domestic and local consumption. Nowadays most of the countries produce their own milk products and the structure of the dairy industry varies in different parts of the world.
Animal biology studies the structural and physiological properties of animals including their behavior, interactions, and environment. The study of animal life is ancient but its scientific incarnation is relatively modern, this shows the transition from natural history to biology at the start of 19th century.
Veterinary epidemiology deals with the study of diseases and their conditions in animals, that affects certain population within the animals. Animals epidemiology helps human health through the monitoring and control of infectious disease transmitted from non-human animals to humans, food safety, and basic medical research.
Animal husbandry deals with the animals, which are raised for milk, eggs, meat, fiber, and other products. The present generation animal husbandry relies on production systems adapted to the type of land available and subsistence farming.
Animal biotechnology advanced very rapidly in the past few years, now it is possible to generate animals with useful novel properties for dairy, meat or fiber production. Nearly identical copies of animals chosen for useful traits such as milk or meat production and high fertility.
Animal vaccines are used to prevent the contracting diseases and to prevent transmission of diseases to humans. Animals raised as livestock and kept as pets are frequently vaccinated, in some instances wild populations may be vaccinated. There are some animal vaccines used in humans have been documented whether accidental or intentional.