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April 27, 2021 at 07:00 PM GMT  
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The classical derivation of a stem cell acquires that it possesses two properties:

Self-renewal: The ability to go through various cycles of cell growth and cell division, also called as cell proliferation, which helps in maintaining the undifferentiated state. Two mechanisms ensure that a stem cell population is maintained:

1. Asymmetric cell division: A stem cell divides into one mother cell, which is similar to the original stem cell, and other daughter cell, which is transformed. When a stem cell self-restore, it divides and does not disrupt the undifferentiated state. This self-restored demands control of cell cycle as well as upkeep of multipotency, which all depends on the stem cell.

2. Stochastic differentiation: When one stem cell grows and divides into two different daughter cells, another stem cell undergoes mitosis and forms two stem cells similar to the original.Stem cells use telomerase, a protein that restores telomeres, to protect their DNA and extend their cell division limit.

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are known to be multipotent, which are only seen in adult tissues like  in the muscle, liver, bone marrow. Mesenchymal stem cells usually function as structural support in various organs as mentioned above, and control the movement of substances. MSC can differentiate into various cell categories as an instance of adipocytes, osteocytes, and chondrocytes, derived by the mesodermal layer. Whereas the mesoderm layer provides an increase to the body’s skeletal elements, such as relating to the cartilage or bone. 

Cancer immunology shows the relationship between the immune system and the progression of cancer. The Basic mechanism of the immune system as it relates to cancer has been increasing rapidly. Although there is ample evidence for anti-tumour immune reactivity in humans, evidence for immunity against malignancy comes mostly from experimental studies with animals to prevent the progression of neoplastic tissue, the immune system identifies the transformed cells which is called Cancer immune surveillance. According to the Immune Surveillance Theory, cancer cells that arise in the body are eliminated by the immune system. However, due to impaired immune reactivity, cancer cells may escape destruction.

Treatment for blood cancer depends on the type of cancer, your age, how fast the cancer is progressing, where the cancer has spread and other factors. Some common blood cancer treatments include: Stem cell transplantation: A stem cell transplant infuses healthy blood-forming stem cells into the body. Stem cells may be collected from the bone marrow, circulating blood and umbilical cord blood. Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy uses anticancer drugs to interfere with and stop the growth of cancer cells in the body. Chemotherapy for blood cancer sometimes involves giving several drugs together in a set regimen. This treatment may also be given before a stem cell transplant. Radiation therapy: Radiation therapy may be used to destroy cancer cells or to relieve pain or discomfort. It may also be given before a stem cell transplant.

Stem cells are undifferentiated or partially differentiated cells that can vary  into different types of cells  where they are usually distinguished from progenitor cells, which cannot divide indefinitely, and precursor or blast cells They exist to refill rapidly lost cell types and are multi potent or unipotent, meaning they only transform into a few cell types or one cell type. The first therapy using stem cells was a bone marrow transplant performed by French oncologist Georges Mathé in 1958 on five workers at the Vinča Nuclear Institute in Yugoslavia who had been attacked by a very critical accident, where they all survived.

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