Today, with increasing in production and diversity expansion of dairy products in factories and production of whey products, this food product has become very important. Whey is a water-soluble part of milk that is obtained by adding acid, heating, and coagulating the cheese. This yellow liquid contains a lot of lactose and mineral compounds such as calcium and phosphorus, which is important to achieve in order to use as a food source and prevent environmental pollution. Since the wastewaters of the dairy industry have the highest levels of contamination, if the untreated wastewaters of this industry are discharged, serious environmental problems will be inevitable. On the other hand, a reduction in existing reserves and environmental problems followed by increasing use of fossil fuels has prompted researchers to produce new sources of renewable energy, and it can be said that new biological technologies, such as the use of whey as a way to produce biofuels, reduces the environmental problems of dischrging this kind of wastewaters into nature. Today, using biological technology, these compounds can be used to produce biofuels such as hydrogen, methane, and ethanol. So far, various methods and tests have been performed to produce these fuel sources and in this study, the effective strategies for recycling whey and preventing environmental damages are investigated.
Barmak received the Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering with the Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in 2013. Early in his career, he served as a Senior Lecturer with the Azad University of Urmia, Iran, from 1998 to 2009. From 2013 to 2015, he was a post-doc fellow at the Integrated Light-wave Research Group (ILRG) in the Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya. He was doing co-supervision of two Ph.D. students in the field of photonics and optics in ILRG. From 2015 to 2018, he was a research fellow in the Department of Image Processing at the Institute of Information Theory and Automation, Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic.
S. enterica is currently the most common foodborne bacterial pathogen causing severe illness. Of the more than 2,500 identified S. enterica, only a few serovars are of public health importance. In the available literature, there is evidence that S. enterica Typhimurium and S. enterica Enteritidis are the most common causes of human salmonellosis, including Kazakhstan.
The aim of the study is genotyping of Salmonella bacterial isolates isolated from clinical material and food in 2018-2019 in Almaty.
Using RAPD PCR, a study of 25 S. enterica isolates isolated from foodstuffs and 65 S. enterica isolates isolated from clinical material, previously identified using biochemical tests, was carried out. Of 25 S. enterica isolates isolated from foods, 14 (56%) isolates were identified as S. enterica Typhimurium, 8 (32%) - S. enterica Enteritidis, 3 (12%) - S. enterica Virchow. In the study of 65 S. enterica isolates from clinical samples, 29 (44.6%) isolates have been identified as S. enterica Typhimurium, 13 (20%) - S. enterica Enteritidis, 23 (35.4%) - Salmonella enterica Virchow.
For three types of bacteria, S. enterica, a specific set of DNA fragments was identified that distinguish them from each other in RAPD PCR. Using RAPD PCR, two genetically different groups with different sets of DNA fragments of S. enterica Typhimurium isolates and three genetically heterogeneous isolates of S. enterica Virchow were found. With the accumulation of a sufficient number of mutations in genes, genotyping methods begin to distinguish isolates. In some cases, the isolates do not differ in the distribution of DNA fragments, which indicates the genetic similarity of these isolates. A genetic relationship was found in S. enterica Enteritidis isolates.
Daniel Asfaw Kitessa is lecture at Wollega University in department of Food Science and Nutrition. He specialize his MSc. degree in Food Science and Technology at Haramaya University. Now time he is doing his PhD at Jimma University in Food Science and Technology. His future research interest is food fermentation/biotechnology, food safety, improving nutritional composition of food products for pregnant, lactating mothers, infants and children, especially through fermentation and formulations using locally available raw materials.
Women’s nutritional status during pregnancy and breastfeeding is not only critical for her health and sustainability of future generations. The studies showed that Ethiopia is one of the countries with highest level of lactating mother’s malnourishment in sub-Saharan Africa. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the effect of fermentation time and mixture ratio on improving the nutritional quality of Shameta in order to enhance nutritional status of lactating mothers. Completely randomized design (CRD) with a 3×4 factorial experiment with three replication was implemented. Results showed that the mixture ratio affect the pH, titratable acidity, proximate compositions, minerals content, anti-nutritional factors and antioxidant activity of porridge (unfermented Shameta). Except fiber contents, all proximate compositions, minerals content and antioxidant activity increased through fermentation time, however phytate and tannin decreased by 70.83 and 77.17%, respectively. Present finding revealed that the highest crude protein was observed in Maize-Barley-Faba bean with ratio of 90:10:15 fermented for 12 days (16.56 g/100g), while the highest crude fat (13.23 g/100g) were found in Maize-Barley-Faba bean with ratio of 90:5:5 fermented for the same days.
Voon, Phooi Tee is a Nutrition Unit, Product Development and Advisory Services Division, Malaysian Palm Oil Board, 43000 Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia. Her Research Interests are Nurtition, Food Processing Technologies
Diets influence the composition of gut microbial-derived short chain fatty acids (SCFAs). A high linear chain SCFAs contents in the Mediterranean and vegetarian diets have demonstrated health benefits. However, branched-chain SCFAs produced in the high fat diet are detrimental to colon health. The information on dietary fats on SCFAs in healthy adults following a regular Malaysian diet is lacking. We investigated the changes of SCFAs in adults (n=32) fed on three different dietary fats (A, B, and C) for 16 weeks. Diet A contained high saturated fats (SFA) but low in unsaturated fat (UFA), while Diet B has similar contents of SFA and UFA, and Diet C has low SFA but high UFA. SCFAs were extracted using mechanical and chemical reactions and analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS). After 16 weeks, three predominating linear chains SCFAs: acetate acid (35%), butanoic (23%), propionic acids (15%), and a lower concentration of branched-chain SCFAs are detected. Diets B and C increase butyric acid, which is particularly important for maintaining colonic cell integrity. Only diet B decreases the percentage of branched-chain SCFAs. These preliminary results may shed some light on types of dietary oil intake and potential SCFAs’ health effects in healthy Malaysians.
K.k.Durkalakshmi is a Lecture in Assistant professor (JSS college of life sience ,ooty) Her Research Interest is Food Safety, Food Quality Methods and Food Drug Feramentation
The aim of the study is to find out the prevalence of anaemia during pregnancy among the different income groups and to identify its impact on the new born .
In the present study 225 anaemic pregnant woman in the 3rd trimester who were divided into three strata based on their income groups were selected and the data was collected using anonymous questionnaire .
The method of sampling that was chosen for the study was stratified random sampling .
The result of the research proved that anaemia during pregnancy was found to be prevalent among all the income groups ,but the degree of prevalence was seen to differ. The low income respondents were the main victims of severe anaemia . Early marriages ,repeated pregnancies, early conception ,poor attention paid to individual health and improper nutrition were the underlining factors . Low birth weight ,prematurity rates and still births were found to be alarmingly high among the low income group . Thus the study proved that economic status has an influence on the prevalence of anaemia . Food fortification, prophylactic iron and folic acid supplements must be provided during the prenatal periods and diet counselling will help in reducing the prevalence of anaemia