Genetic Engineering, also called recombinant DNA technology, involves the group of techniques used to cut up and join together genetic material, especially DNA from different biological species, and to introduce the resulting hybrid DNA into an organism in order to form new combinations of heritable genetic material. Genetic engineering has been applied in numerous fields including research, medicine, industrial biotechnology and agriculture. Many more new discoveries are invented in the Genetic Research.
Crops: Genetically modified crops (GM crops) are plants used in agriculture, the DNA of which has been modified using genetic engineering methods. In most cases, the aim is to introduce a new trait to the plant which does not occur naturally in the species. Examples in food crops include resistance to certain pests, diseases, environmental conditions, reduction of spoilage, resistance to chemical treatments (e.g. resistance to a herbicide), or improving the nutrient profile of the crop. Examples in non-food crops include production of pharmaceutical agents, biofuels, and other industrially useful goods, as well as for bioremediation.Food: Genetically modified foods (GM foods), also known as genetically engineered foods (GE foods), or bioengineered foods are foods produced from organisms that have had changes introduced into their DNA using the methods of genetic engineering. Genetic engineering techniques allow for the introduction of new traits as well as greater control over traits when compared to previous methods, such as selective breeding and mutation breeding.
Gene Therapy: Human DNA is estimated to have approximately 12 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and thousands of copy number variants (CNVs), most of which are not harmful. However, genetic disorders do sometimes occur as a result of mutations that alter or inhibit protein function. Gene therapy focuses on correcting these mutated or defective genes by way of the following techniques:
Molecular cloning: It is a set of experimental methods in molecular biology that are used to assemble recombinant DNA molecules and to direct their replication within host organisms. The use of the word cloning refers to the fact that the method involves the replication of one molecule to produce a population of cells with identical DNA molecules. Molecular cloning generally uses DNA sequences from two different organisms: the species that is the source of the DNA to be cloned, and the species that will serve as the living host for replication of the recombinant DNA.
Gene Delivery: Gene delivery is the process of introducing foreign genetic material, such as DNA or RNA, into host cells. Genetic material must reach the nucleus of the host cell to induce gene expression. Successful gene delivery requires the foreign genetic material to remain stable within the host cell and can either integrate into the genome or replicate independently of it.
DNA fingerprinting or DNA profiling is a method used to identify an individual from a sample of DNA by looking at unique patterns in their DNA. DNA profiling is a forensic technique in criminal investigations, comparing criminal suspects' profiles to DNA evidence so as to assess the likelihood of their involvement in the crime.
CRISPR is a type of gene-editing technology that lets scientists more rapidly and accurately 'cut' and 'paste' genes into DNA. It is based on a targeted DNA-destroying defense system originally found in certain prokaryotes. CRISPR stands for Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats, a term that describes a family of nucleic acid sequences that were discovered in archea and bacteria in the 1990s containing copies of virus genes. This ability to identify specific DNA sequences with precision and break them apart was quickly recognized as a perfect tool for editing genes.