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February 26, 2021 at 03:00 AM GMT  
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Public health is concerned with protecting the health of entire populations. Epidemiology is the study and analysis of the cause, effect and structure of diseases. It is the key discipline of public health and identifies risk factors for disease and targets for preventive care. Epidemiology consists mainly of acquiring a new understanding of the correlation of genetic and environmental factors affecting human health, providing the scientific basis for applying this knowledge to global health. It is applied to cover the description of epidemic diseases and health problems such as obesity and hypertension.

Nutrition is the provision of the materials (food) needed by organisms and cells to stay alive. It's the science or practice of consuming and using food. A nutrient is a source of food, a food component, for example protein, carbohydrates, lipids, vitamins, minerals, fibre and water. To improve the overall nutritional status of vulnerable groups, address specific nutritional deficiencies in mothers and children and contribute to improved nutrition through indirect programs. 

 

Tobacco use is the second leading cause of death and the fourth most common risk factor for disease worldwide. It is one of the biggest threats to Public health the world has ever known, killing more than 8 million people a year worldwide.More than 7 million of these deaths are the result of direct smoking, while 1.2 million are the result of non-smokers exposed to second-hand smoke. About 80% of the 1.1 billion smokers worldwide live in low- and middle-income countries, where the burden of tobacco-related illness and death is greatest. Tobacco use contributes to poverty by diverting household spending from basic needs such as food and shelter to tobacco. This spending behaviour is difficult to control because tobacco is highly addictive.

Alcohol is a psychoactive substance with addictive properties that has been widely used in many cultures for centuries. The harmful use of alcohol can also harm other people, such as family members, friends, colleagues and strangers. In addition, harmful consumption of alcohol entails a significant health, social and economic burden for society as a whole.

Worldwide, 3 million deaths every year result from harmful use of alcohol, this represent 5.3 % of all deaths. Alcohol consumption causes death and disability relatively early in life. In the age group 20–39 years approximately 13.5 % of the total deaths are alcohol-attributable. There is a causal relationship between harmful use of alcohol and a range of mental and behavioural disorders, other noncommunicable conditions as well as injuries. The latest causal relationships have been established between harmful drinking and incidence of infectious diseases such as tuberculosis as well as the course of HIV/AIDS.

Food safety is used as a scientific discipline to describe the handling, preparation and storage of food to prevent foodborne illness. Foodborne illnesses are usually infectious or toxic in nature and caused by bacteria, viruses, parasites or chemical substances entering the body through contaminated food or water.

Access to sufficient amounts of safe and nutritious food is key to sustaining life and promoting good health. Unsafe food containing harmful bacteria, viruses, parasites or chemical substances, causes more than 200 diseases – ranging from diarrhoea to cancers. Unsafe food creates a vicious cycle of disease and malnutrition, particularly affecting infants, young children, elderly and the sick

The lives of approximately 1.35 million people are interrupted each year as a result of a traffic accident. Between 20 and 50 million more people suffer from non-fatal injuries, many of whom become disabled as a result of their injuries.

More than half of all traffic accident deaths involve vulnerable road users: pedestrians, cyclists and motorcyclists. Traffic accidents are the leading cause of death in children and young adults aged 5 to 29

Prescription drug abuse means taking medication in a manner or dose other than that prescribed; take someone else's prescription, even for a legitimate medical complaint like pain; or take a medicine to get euphoria (i.e. to get high). The term nonmedical use of prescription drugs also refers to these categories of misuse.

Adolescent pregnancies are a global problem that occurs in high, middle and low income countries. Around the world, teenage pregnancies are more likely to occur in marginalized communities, generally driven by poverty and lack of education and job opportunities.

Teenage pregnancy remains a major contributor to maternal and child mortality and to the intergenerational cycles of poor health and poverty. Complications of pregnancy and childbirth are the leading cause of death for girls aged 15 to 19 worldwide; with low and middle-income countries accounting for 99% of global maternal deaths among women aged 15 to 49. Early motherhood can increase the risks for newborns and young mothers. In low and middle income countries, babies born to mothers under the age of 20 are at higher risk for low birth weight, preterm delivery and serious neonatal conditions.

Mental health is not always simply the absence of mental illness. It is defined as a state of well-being in which each person realizes his or her own abilities, can cope with the normal constraints of lifestyles, can paint in a productive and fruitful way and can make a contribution to his or her network. Mental health includes our emotional, psychological and social well-being. It influences the way we suppose, feel and act. It also helps to decide how we manage tension, build relationships, and make choices. It plays a key role in all levels of life, from early childhood education to maturity. Mental health problems are common, but help is available. People with mental health problems can improve and recover fully.

Emergency critical care is an intensive care unit, where patient needs immediate attention and needed in case of life threatening accident and traumatic condition. These conditions mainly belong to physical wellness and health conditions related to severe accidents like fire, crash and collisions.Critical care is for hospital patients with serious health problems who need intensive medical care and monitoring. Patients in intensive care units, also called ICUs, are cared for by a team of providers that may include: Specially trained nurses. Physicians.

Health care management, also known as health care administration, is the administration, management or supervision of health care systems, hospitals, entire hospital networks or other medical facilities. It is the profession that provides leadership and direction to organizations that provide Personal health Services, as well as to divisions, departments, units or services within those organizations. The tasks of these professionals include ensuring the proper functioning of the various services, hiring qualified employees, effectively communicating information throughout the organization, achieving specific results and ensuring rational use of resources, among many other responsibilities

Maternal health is the health associated with pregnant women until the postpartum period. Motherhood is an exciting experience, but it suffers for too many women, it hurts health or even death. Improving maternal health is essential to saving the lives of more than half a million women who die from complications of pregnancy and childbirth each year. Deaths then occur in low-wage settings, including cases of high blood pressure, infection, high blood pressure, and complications during delivery. Maternal health is closely linked to infant survival.

 

Obesity is a condition in which excess body fat has gathered to an ample that it may have a negative effect on health. It increases the likelihood of various diseases and conditions, particularly cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, certain types of cancer, osteoarthritis, and depression. 

Obesity is most commonly caused by a combination of excessive food intake, lack of physical activity, and genetic susceptibility. It is mostly preventable through a combination of social changes and personal choices. Changes in diet and exercising are the main treatments.

Chronically elevated blood pressure causes the heart to work harder to circulate blood, and increases the risk of heart attack and stroke. You have shortness of breath, palpitations or dizziness. A cardiologist can determine if a heart condition is the cause. General cardiologists have broad knowledge about the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of a range of cardiovascular diseases, including high blood pressure and high cholesterol as well as heart attacks, heart rhythm disorders, heart valve problems, and disorders of the blood vessels.

 

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