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April 25, 2021 at 10:00 AM GMT  
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Innate Immunate system

Adaptive Immune System

Evolution of the Immune system

Cell Mediated Immunity

The branch of biology that deals with interaction among immune system and tumor cells. This study is mostly relevant in result of noval therapies for cancer treatment. Cancer immunotherapy (sometimes called immuno-oncology) is the non-natural stimulation of the immune system to give cancer, cultivating on the immune system's normal capability to combat the disease. It is an application of the vital research of cancer immunology and a rising sub speciality of oncology. It exploits the point that cancer cells often have tumor antigens, molecules on their outward that can be sensed by the antibody proteins of the immune system, binding to them. The tumor antigens are often proteins or other macromolecules (e.g. carbohydrates). Usual antibodies fix to external pathogens, but the enhanced immunotherapy antibodies fix to the tumor antigens pattern and recognizing the cancer cells for the immune system to inhibit or kill

The study of immune dysfunction is called Immuno toxicology. It is due to exposure of an organism to foreign chemical substance identified within a creature that is not usually produced by or estimated to be existent within that organism. Immune dysfunction may effect in the decline of the action of the immune system. Immunotoxic substances, such as chemicals, pesticides, or drugs, can have adversarial effects on the working of the immune system. The well-known effects comprise enlarged susceptibility to infections or tumors as a result of humoral and/or cellular immunity being co-operated (immunosuppression), autoimmune diseases, chronic inflammation, and progress of allergies.

Neuro immunology is the study of the interface concerning our central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord) and our immune system. It pays to growth of novel pharmacological treatments for numerous neurological situations. The immune system and the nervous system continue extensive communication, together with 'hardwiring' of sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves to lymphoid organs. Neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine, norepinephrine, vasoactive intestinal peptide, element P and histamine modulate immune activity. Neuroendocrine hormones such as corticotrophin-releasing factor, leptin and alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone normalize cytokine balance. The immune system moderates brain activity, with body temperature, sleep and feeding performance. Molecules such as the main histocompatibility composite not only direct T cells to immunogenic molecules held in its cleft but also moderate growth of neuronal connections. Neurobiologists and immunologists are discovering mutual ideas like the synapse to understand properties such as recall that are common in these two systems

Immunodeficiency is a state in which the immune system's capability to contest infectious disease is cooperated or entirely absent. Immunodeficiency disorders stop your body from sufficiently fighting impurities and diseases. An immunodeficiency disorder also makes it easier for you to catch viruses and bacteriological infections in the first place. Immunodeficiency disorders are often categorized as either congenital or acquired. A congenital, or principal, disorder is one you were born with. Assimilated, or subordinate, disorders are you get later in life. Acquired disorders are more collective than congenital disorders. Immune system contains the following organs: tonsils, bone marrow, spleen, lymph nodes. Most importantly immunodeficiency disorders are immune disarrays you are born with. Primary disorders include:

·         X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA)

·         Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID)

·         Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID)

Secondary disorders comprise: AIDS, cancers of the immune system such as immune-complex diseases, leukemia such as multiple myeloma, viral hepatitis.

Secondary disorders occur when an external basis, such as a toxic chemical or infection, attacks your body. Severe burns and radiation also can basis secondary disorders

The branch of medical science that deals with the frequency and spread of viruses in populations over time is called Epidemiology. It is used to disrupt the series of infection in populations during outbursts of viral diseases. Host, virus and environmental factors are watched to define the dynamics of viral infections, the final goal is to devise intervention strategies. Programme of viruses can be vertical, means from mother to child (or) horizontal, means from person to person. The rate of transmission of viral infections depends on factors that include population density, the number of susceptible individuals, the worth of healthcare and the weather

The roles of the various parts of the system concerned within the tolerance or rejection of grafts and in graft-versus-host unwellness are processed. These parts include: antibodies, matter presenting cells, helper and cytotoxic lymph cell subsets, immune cell surface molecules, communication mechanisms and cytokines that they unharness.

The treatment that uses certain parts of a person’s immune system to fight diseases such as cancer is known as Immunotherapy. It can be done in two ways.

•   Giving you immune system components, such as synthetic immune system proteins

•   Stimulating your own immune system to work smarter or harder to attack cancer cells

Certain types of Immunotherapy are also sometimes called biologic therapy or biotherapy. From last few decades immunotherapy also has become a major role of treating particular forms of cancer. Innovative types of immune treatments are now being studied, and they’ll influence in what way we can treat cancer in the upcoming days. Immunotherapy Consists treatments that functions in various ways. Some boost the body’s immune system in a very common way.

Immune system is a composite system of the human body and understanding it is one of the most interesting topics in biology. Immunology research is vital for thoughtful the appliances underlying the defence of human body and to progress drugs for immunological diseases and continue health. Modern results in genomic and proteomic knowledge have changed the immunology research extremely. Sequencing of the human and other ideal organism genomes has formed gradually great capacities of data relevant to immunology study and at the similar time vast amounts of purposeful and clinical data are being conveyed in the scientific literature and kept in clinical records. Latest improvements in bioinformatics or computational biology were co-operative to know and organize these large scale data and gave rise to different zone that is called Computational immunology or immunoinformatics.

Computational immunology is a division of bioinformatics and it is founded on same concepts and tools, such as arrangement position and protein structure prediction tools. Immunomics is a discipline like genomics and proteomics. It is a science, which precisely associates Immunology with computer science, mathematics, chemistry, and biochemistry for large-scale analysis of immune system functions. It objects to study the compound protein–protein relations and networks and permits a well accepting of immune responses and their part during normal, diseased and reformation states. Computational immunology is a part of immunomics, which is concentrated on analyzing large scale experimental data

Immunological techniques consist of both experimental procedures to study the immune system and approaches to create and usage immunological mixtures as experimental tools. The most collective immunological approaches relate to the production and use of antibodies to distinguish specific proteins in biological samples. Numerous laboratory methods exist that rely on the usage of antibodies to visualize modules of microorganisms or further cell types and to distinguish one cell or organism kind from alternative. Immunologic methods are used for: Quantitating and discovering antibodies and antigens, Purifying immunoglobulins, lymphokines and other molecules of the immune system, Isolating antigens and other substances significant in immunological progressions, Labelling antigens and antibodies, Localizing antigens and/or antibodies in tissues and cells, Spotting, and fractionating immunocompetent cells, Assaying for cellular immunity, Documenting cell-cell interactions, Initiating immunity and unresponsiveness, Transplanting tissues, Study items narrowly correlated to immunity such as complement, reticuloendothelial system and others, Molecular techniques for studying immune cells and their receptors, Imaging of the immune system, Methods for production or their fragments in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells.

Immunogenetics is a category of immunology which supports us to study medical genetics which benefits us to realise the relative with genetic immune fault and immune passageway system alongside there components respectively.

The injection is a biological preparation that enriches resistance to precise infection. It has all individual operatives that look like an illness getting almost the microorganism along with animates body's safe framework to perceive the exterior specialists. Vaccine is lifeless or non-activated life forms or refined things gotten from them

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