Webinar on STEM CELLS is gladdened to invite all the contributors all over the world to be the part of the honoured culmination which will be held on April 29, 2021. This webinar is prepared for an energizing and enlightening meeting program including discrete techniques, protocols, unalike sessions and various innovative approaches about stem cells research ,cell and gene therapy ,which hopes to join Professors, Researchers and Technocrats all over the world and share/ gain their immense experiences in the field of “Stem Cells Research, Cell and gene Therapy”.
As we know its being a very inclining subject at present in modern technology which gives a brief explanation on stem cell development their isolation and culture experimental technologies and optical molecular imaging , positron emission tomography and computed tomography. Cell therapy offers a new programme that supports the introduction of new and active cells to restore previously damaged or deteriorated tissue- and organ structures. As such, in recent days, cell therapy has been identified as most important field in the treatment of human disease.
Session-1: Stem cells
Stem cells are undifferentiated or partially differentiated cells that can vary into different types of cells where they are usually distinguished from progenitor cells, which cannot divide indefinitely, and precursor or blast cells They exist to refill rapidly lost cell types and are multi potent or unipotent, meaning they only transform into a few cell types or one cell type. The first therapy using stem cells was a bone marrow transplant performed by French oncologist Georges Mathé in 1958 on five workers at the VinÄa Nuclear Institute in Yugoslavia who had been attacked by a very critical accident, where they all survived.
Session-2: Properties of stem cells
The classical derivation of a stem cell acquires that it possesses two properties:
Self-renewal: The ability to go through various cycles of cell growth and cell division, also called as cell proliferation, which helps in maintaining the undifferentiated state. Two mechanisms ensure that a stem cell population is maintained:
1. Asymmetric cell division: A stem cell divides into one mother cell, which is similar to the original stem cell, and other daughter cell, which is transformed. When a stem cell self-restore, it divides and does not disrupt the undifferentiated state. This self-restored demands control of cell cycle as well as upkeep of multipotency, which all depends on the stem cell.
2. Stochastic differentiation: When one stem cell grows and divides into two different daughter cells, another stem cell undergoes mitosis and forms two stem cells similar to the original.Stem cells use telomerase, a protein that restores telomeres, to protect their DNA and extend their cell division limit.
Potency: The capacity to transform into specialized cell types. In the precise manner, this requires stem cells to be either totipotent or pluripotent—to be able to give rise to any mature cell type, although multipotent or unipotent progenitor cells are sometimes referred to as stem cells. Apart from this, it is said that stem cell function is regulated in a feedback mechanism.
Session-3: Mesenchyme stem cells
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are known to be multipotent, which are only seen in adult tissues like in the muscle, liver, bone marrow. Mesenchymal stem cells usually function as structural support in various organs as mentioned above, and control the movement of substances. MSC can differentiate into various cell categories as an instance of adipocytes, osteocytes, and chondrocytes, derived by the mesodermal layer. Whereas the mesoderm layer provides an increase to the body’s skeletal elements, such as relating to the cartilage or bone. These are well-known to be essential for regenerative medicine. Since they are easily isolated and obtain high yield, high plasticity, which makes able to facilitate inflammation and encourage cell growth, cell differentiation, and restoring tissue.
Session-4: Gene therapy
Gene therapy is a procedure that uses genes to treat or prevent disease. It is designed to introduce genetic material into cells to remunerate for abnormal genes or to make a beneficial protein. If a mutated gene causes a necessary protein to be faulty, gene therapy may be able to introduce a normal copy of the gene to renew the function of the protein. The concept of gene therapy is to fix a genetic problem at its source. This strategy is referred to as gene replacement therapy and is enrolled to treat inherited retinal diseases.
Session-5: Types of gene therapy
Gene therapy may be classified into two types:
Gene therapy utilizes the delivery of DNA into cells, which can be fulfilled by several methods. The two major categories
Viral methods: All viruses bind to their hosts and introduce their genetic material into the host cell as part of their replication cycle. This genetic material contains basic procedures of how to produce more copies of these viruses, hacking the body's normal production machinery to serve the needs of the virus. The host cell will carry out these procedures and produce additional copies of the virus, leading to more and more cells becoming infected. Some types of viruses insert their genome into the host's cytoplasm, but do not actually enter the cell. Others penetrate the cell membrane disguised as protein molecules and enter the cell.
Session-7: Pluripotent Stem Cells
Human Pluripotent Stem Cells (hPSCs) are characterized by their capacity to self-renew and separate into any cell type of the human body. To fully utilize potential of hPSCs for translational research and clinical applications, it is critical to develop rigorous cell separation protocols under feeder-free conditions that are efficient, reproducible, and versatile for high-throughput projects. Focusing on neural change of hPSCs, here we describe robust small molecule-based procedures that generate neural stem cells (NSCs) in less than seven days under chemically defined conditions. These protocols can be utilized to dissect the mechanisms of neural lineage entry and to further develop systematic protocols that produce the cellular diversity of the central nervous system at industrial scale. The most notable type of Pluripotent stem cells is the embryonic stem cell. However, since the generation of embryonic stem cells involves destruction of the pre-implantation stage embryo, there has been a lot of debate surrounding their use. Further, because embryonic stem cells can only be derived from embryos, it has so far not been possible to make patient-matche
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