Track 1: Genetic Toxicology
Genetic toxicology is of the toxic effects of harm to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) direct DNA damage leading to mutations. Approximately 10% of all human diseases may have a genetic component and thus may arise from a mutation of one form or another. One major role of genetic toxicology over the years has been to investigate mechanisms of heredity by providing tools to study DNA and RNA structure. Some chemicals have the ability to induce fragile sites in regions of the chromosome where oncogenes are present, which could lead to carcinogenic effects. The purpose of Genotoxicity testing is to determine if a substrate will influence genetic material or may cause cancer. They can be performed in bacterial, yeast, and mammalian cells with the knowledge from the tests, one can control early development of vulnerable organisms to genotoxic substances.
Track 2: Clinical Toxicology
Clinical toxicology involves the detection and treatment of poisonings caused by a wide variety of substances, including household and industrial products, animal poisons and venoms, environmental agents, pharmaceuticals, and illegal drugs. Each year poisonings account for approximately 43,000 deaths and at least 2.3 million emergency department visits. Males have a nearly twofold higher incidence of death than do females and 15% of adult poisoning deaths are attributed to suicide. Approximately 0.2% of poisoning deaths involve children younger than 5 years. Emergency department visits for drug misuse and abuse, typically 51% involve illicit drugs, 59% involve pharmaceuticals, and 30% involve alcohol in combination with other drugs and underage drinking.
Track 3: Drug Toxicology
Some drugs can be toxic to certain patients because of genetic predisposition, non-selective action, or inappropriate use or administration of the drug. The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) spends a significant portion of its $1 trillion budget to ensure that new drugs are not overtly or unnecessarily dangerous. Moreover, pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies spend years and millions of dollars in clinical trials to understand the safety and inherent toxicity of their drugs.
Track 4: Immunotoxicology
The discipline concerned with the study of the events that can lead to undesired effects as a result of interaction of xenobiotics with the immune system. These undesired events may result as a consequence of a direct and/or indirect effect of the xenobiotic on the immune system, or an immunologically based host response to the compound and/or its metabolites, or host antigens modified by the compound or its metabolites. In the non-adult (embryo, foetus, neonate, juvenile, adolescent) this study is referred to as Developmental Immunotoxicology.
Track 5: Forensic Toxicology
Forensic toxicology deals with the investigation of toxic substances, environmental chemicals or poisonous products. Forensic toxicology is a bit of a mix of many other scientific disciplines such as chemistry, pathology and biochemistry. A forensic toxicologist must consider the context of an investigation, in particular any physical symptoms recorded, and any evidence collected at a crime scene that may narrow the search, such as pill bottles, powders, trace residue, and any available chemicals. The chemical makeup of each substance is studied and they are also identified from different sources such as urine or hair. Forensic toxicology deals with the way that substances are absorbed, distributed or eliminated in the body – the metabolism of substances. The choice of method for testing is highly dependent on what kind of substance one expects to find and the material on which the testing is performed. Gas-liquid chromatography is of particular use in examining volatile organic compounds. Detection of metals by Reinsch test, emission spectroscopy or X-ray diffraction. Drugs, both prescribed and illicit, pesticides, natural products, pollutants and industrial compounds are some of the most common non-volatile compounds encountered. Screening methods include thin-layer chromatography, gas-liquid chromatography and immunoassay.
Track 6: Food Toxicology
Food Toxicology focuses on the analysis and toxic effects of bioactive substances as they occur in foods. Food toxicology is a distinct field that evaluates the effects of components of the complex chemical matrix of the diet on the activities of toxic agents that may be natural endogenous products or may be introduced from contaminating organisms, or from food production, processing, and preparation.
Track 7: Occupational Toxicology & Human Risk Assessment
The science of toxicology has many applications. One of these relates to exposure of people to noxious or hazardous agents during the course of their work. Work-related exposures are studied by use of inhalation and skin exposure monitoring as well as biomarkers of exposure, susceptibility and effect, usually as part of epidemiological exposures. Modelling of dose-response relationships will be used to derive a safe level for workers using data from small scale experimental (animal or volunteer) studies. A cursory glance at the Group 1 carcinogen list of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) should be evidence enough from this perspective. The epidemic of asbestos-related cancer that continues in some countries.
Track 8: Regulatory Toxicology
Regulatory toxicology encompasses the collection, processing, and evaluation of epidemiological and experimental toxicology data to permit scientifically based decisions directed toward the protection of humans from the harmful effects of chemical substances. Furthermore, this area of toxicology supports the development of standard protocols and new testing methods to continuously improve the scientific basis for decision-making processes.
Track 9: Toxicological Studies
Toxicology studies are mainly done to elucidate the cellular and biochemical effects of toxins and are done by the Toxicologist who is an individual response for forecasting the toxic or unsafe nature of a substance by planning tests that will supply the data necessary to measure the toxicity of materials. These data help toxicologists make predictions about the dangerous nature of materials tested and their possible influence on the environment and on human populations. Acute toxicity, chronic, and generative tests are the key principal experiments conducted by the toxicologists. The relationship between dose and its effects on the exposed organism is of high significance in toxicology. Factors that influence chemical toxicity include the dosage (and whether it is acute or chronic); the route of exposure, the species, age, sex and environment.
Track 10: Neurotoxicology & Reproductive Toxicology
Neurotoxicity and reproductive toxicity are important areas for risk assessment, since the nervous and reproductive systems are highly sensitive to xenobiotic effects. Many pesticides are deliberately designed to disrupt reproduction and neurological function in target organisms, such as insects, through interference with hormonal biochemistry and neurotransmission.
The manifestations of neurotoxicity include effects on learning (including memory, cognition and intellectual performance), somatosensory processes (including sensation and proprioreception), motor function (including balance, gait and fine movement control), affect (including personality status and emotionality) and autonomic function (nervous control of endocrine function and internal organ systems)
Reproductive hazards may affect the development of the reproductive system in males or females, reproductive behaviours, hormonal function, the hypothalamus and pituitary, gonads and germ cells, fertility, pregnancy and the duration of reproductive function.
Track 11: Natural & Cosmetic Toxicology
Many plants & animals produce toxic substances for both defence & offensive purposes. Natural toxins may feature in poisoning via containing in food, by accidental ingestions of poisonous plants or animals by stinging & biting.
The National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) analyzed 2,983 chemicals used in personal care products and found that: 884 were toxic 778 caused acute toxicity 313 caused biological mutations 376 caused skin & eye irritations 148 caused tumours 218 caused reproductive complications.
Toxic effects of Synthetic Chemicals Accelerated aging Acne, Allergies, Anxiety, Arthritis, Asthma & breathing disorders, Autoimmune Diseases, Birth defects, Bone Marrow Damage Brain Fog, Brain Haemorrhage, Breast Cancer, Cancer.
Track 12: Target Organ Toxicology
Target organ effects indicate which bodily organs are most likely to be affected by exposure to a substance. The accumulation of antimicrobial drugs and their metabolic by-products in organs can be toxic, leading to organ damage. Toxicity can mention to the effect on an entire organism and the result on a substructure of the creature such as organ which may effect on any organ of the human being organ or tissue in the human body can be affected by antimicrobial toxicity.
Track 13: Mechanistic Toxicology
Mechanistic toxicology describes the processes of how chemicals exert their toxic effects in biological systems. Mechanistic toxicology therefore not only delineates a hazard for a particular chemical, and defines the potency of one compound in comparison with its congeners, but also aims at identifying the underlying molecular events that lead from initial exposure to the chemical to the ultimate manifestation of toxic injury in an organism.
Track 14: Environmental Toxicology
There are many sources of environmental toxicity that can lead to the presence of toxicants in our food, water and air. Every day, all of us ingest tiny amounts of these chemicals. The EPA estimates there are more than 20,000 chemicals that our bodies cannot metabolize. Chemicals not metabolized are stored in the fat cells throughout our bodies where they continue to accumulate. These sources include organic and inorganic pollutants, pesticides and biological agents. There can be so called point sources of pollution, for instance the drains from a specific factory but also non-point sources (diffuse sources) like the rubber from car tires that contain numerous chemicals and heavy metals that are spread in the environment.
Track 15: Veterinary toxicology
The subject of veterinary toxicology is complicated greatly by the wide variations in responses of domestic, aquatic, wild and zoo species to toxicants. By the turn of the 21st century, began to face new problems such as, during the incident of 2001, a large number of pets died from the collapse of the World Trade Centre in New York City, while the surviving ones still suffer from a variety of illnesses (Ground Zero Illnesses) caused by the dust, debris and toxic chemicals. In 2005, two major hurricanes (Katrina and Rita) devastated the lives of so many animals in the Gulf Coast states of Louisiana and Mississippi. Thousands of animals died, while a large number of others suffered from intoxication with high levels of metals, pesticides, algal toxins and many other unidentified toxic substances.
Track 16: Computational toxicology
The Computational Toxicology Research Program is a technology-based, hypothesis-driven effort to increase the soundness of risk assessment decisions within the Agency. It is designed to increase the capacity to prioritize, screen, and evaluate chemicals by enhancing the ability of the Agency to predict chemicals’ toxicities. Success will be measured by the ability to improve risk assessments by understanding the potential of chemicals to affect molecular and biochemical pathways of concern, and their toxicity pathways.
Track 17: Nanotoxicology
In spite of its beneficial outcomes in various fields, nanoparticles have created a worldwide concern due to its toxicities on the health and ecosystem. Hence, it is the responsibility of the manufacturer to establish the toxicity profile for the nanoparticles to reassure the regulators, workers, and consumers that the nanoparticles can be used safely. Similarly, academic researchers, who are involved in the nanoparticle research, should generate the toxicity profile for the nanoparticles prior to establish the beneficial outcomes in animal models